Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
An open access publication of ISCCM™ 
 
Users online: 47 
     Home | Login 
  About Current Issue Archive Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Etcetera Contact  
  NAVIGATE Here 
  Search
 
 » Next article
 » Previous article 
 » Table of Contents
  
 RESOURCE Links
 »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
 »  Article in PDF (902 KB)
 »  Citation Manager
 »  Access Statistics
 »  Reader Comments
 »  Email Alert *
 »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Introduction
 »  Materials and Me...
 »  Results
 »  Discussion
 »  Conclusions
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4391    
    Printed175    
    Emailed7    
    PDF Downloaded488    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal

 


 
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-20

A comparative study to assess the effect of amikacin sulfate bladder wash on catheter-associated urinary tract infection in neurosurgical patients


1 College of Nursing, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication1-Jul-2009

Correspondence Address:
Srinivas Dwarakanath
Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.53110

PMID: 19881174

Get Permissions


 » Abstract 

Background: The indwelling urinary catheter is an essential part of modern medical care. Unfortunately, when poorly managed, the indwelling catheter may present a hazard to the very patients it is designed to protect. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in hospitals and nursing homes. Aims and Objectives: The primary objective was to study the effect of amikacin sulfate bladder wash on CAUTI in neurosurgical patients. The other objectives were to study the various organisms causing CAUTI and their antibiotic sensitivity and resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled study performed on 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria at the neurosurgical intensive care of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences between June and December 2006. The patients were randomized into two groups - one was the trial group which received amikacin bladder wash, while the other was the control group that did not receive any bladder wash. Results: Forty percent of the subjects in the control group developed CAUTI, while none of the subjects in study group developed CAUTI. (Fisher's exact test, P value < 0.001) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (51%) was the commonest pathogen. Conclusions: Amikacin sulfate bladder wash was effective in preventing CAUTI. It can thus decrease the antibiotic usage thereby preventing the emergence of antibiotic resistance.


Keywords: Amikacin bladder irrigation, bladder wash, catherer-associated urinary tract infection


How to cite this article:
Zacharias S, Dwarakanath S, Agarwal M, Sharma BS. A comparative study to assess the effect of amikacin sulfate bladder wash on catheter-associated urinary tract infection in neurosurgical patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2009;13:17-20

How to cite this URL:
Zacharias S, Dwarakanath S, Agarwal M, Sharma BS. A comparative study to assess the effect of amikacin sulfate bladder wash on catheter-associated urinary tract infection in neurosurgical patients. Indian J Crit Care Med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2014 Apr 24];13:17-20. Available from: http://www.ijccm.org/text.asp?2009/13/1/17/53110



 » Introduction Top


The indwelling urinary catheter is an essential part of modern medical care and a variety of different indwelling urinary catheters can be used for various purposes. Each year, urinary catheters are inserted in more than five million patients in acute-care hospitals and extended-care facilities. [1]

Unfortunately, when poorly managed, the indwelling catheter may present a hazard to the very patients it is designed to protect. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in hospitals and nursing homes, comprising >40% of all institutionally acquired infections. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6] Interventions such as topical meatal antimicrobials, disinfectants added to the urinary drainage bag, and antimicrobials coatings for catheters have not been shown to decrease the incidence of UTI. [7] An effective measure to prevent the CAUTI has not yet been developed. The most common organisms responsible for CAUTI are  Escherichia More Details coli , Candida spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Streptococcus agalactiae , Enterococcus faecalis , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Amikacin has proven to be the most effective antibiotic in preventing the growth of all these species. [8]

Previous studies have shown that using individualized regimens for bladder washouts minimizes the infection rate and catheter blockage, thus reducing the need for frequent recatheterization. [9] Since there is no significant systemic absorption of antibiotics used for bladder irrigation, [10] prophylactic bladder irrigations are considered to be safe. We performed an extensive review of literature which did not reveal any study done on the effectiveness of amikacin sulfate bladder wash.


 » Materials and Methods Top


This study was performed on a total of 60 catheterized patients who were admitted to the Neurosurgery Department of AIIMS, New Delhi, during June-December 2006 and met the inclusion criteria [Appendix 1]. The subject data sheet and procedure of amikacin sulfate bladder wash was developed under the guidance of a guide (Author 3) and co-guides (Authors 2 and 4), and was further validated by six experts from the Departments of Neurosurgery, Microbiology, and Nursing, AIIMS.

Informed written consent was taken from the patients or patients' relatives after providing appropriate information to the concerned. Confidentiality of the data was ensured. They were randomized after catheterization to either of the two groups - study and the control groups. Then urine samples were sent within 24 hours for culture and sensitivity (C/S), in case of positive C/S, patients were excluded from the study [Appendix 2]. Study group received amikacin sulfate bladder wash twice daily under strict aseptic precautions and the control group did not receive bladder wash [Appendix 3]. Urine C/S was performed on days 3, 7, and then weekly till the removal of catheter or discharge. Both groups received standard catheter care including perineal care; the only difference was the bladder wash. The researcher (Author 1) performed the bladder wash on all patients to eliminate bias. CAUTI was diagnosed when it met the respective criteria [Appendix 4].

Statistical methods

Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-10 th version. A probability of <0.05 was accepted as significant. For continuous variables having normal distribution, data were summarized using mean±SD, and the groups were compared using independent t test. Range and median were used for all continuous variables having non-normal distribution (age and duration of catheterization) and the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Frequency and percentage were used for all categorical variables and the groups were compared using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test.

The study was conducted following the approval of ethics committee of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS).


 » Results Top


Demographic profile of patients

Age of the study subjects ranged from 18-68 years [Table 1]. The groups were homogenous in terms of age, sex, level of consciousness, size of catheter and duration of catheterization, and systemic usage of steroids and antibiotics. Bladder wash was well tolerated by all the subjects in the study group.

Incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and predisposing factors

Incidence of CAUTI was 40% in the control group [Figure 1]. None of the subjects from the bladder wash group developed CAUTI. Amikacin bladder wash was effective in preventing CAUTI ( P < 0.001). Lower levels of consciousness (i.e. the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)) increased the risk of developing CAUTI ( P = 0.026) [Table 2].

Organism and sensitivity profile

P. aeruginosa
was the most common organism responsible for 51% of CAUTI [Figure 2]. P. aeruginosa was completely sensitive to amikacin sulfate, cefaperazone plus sulbactam, and piperacillin plus tazobactam, while it was completely resistant towards ceftazidime.


 » Discussion Top


The present study is the first of its kind in which the effect of amikacin bladder wash has been analyzed. Efficiency of bladder irrigation using various different solutions have been studied in the past in an attempt to reduce the incidence of CAUTI, majority of the investigators found it to be a time consuming and costly procedure that did not have an impact on CAUTI. [11],[12],[13],[14],[15] In contrast, the present study revealed that amikacin bladder wash is effective in preventing CAUTI. In previous studies, the incidence of CAUTI ranged from 11.0-73.3%. [16],[17] In the present study, incidence of CAUTI was 40% since those who were catheterized for less than three days were excluded in the study. This inclusion criterion might be the chief reason for a higher incidence of CAUTI in the present study.

CAUTI increases the burden of the patient in terms of increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and cost of the tests and medicines. [17],[18],[19] Tambyah et al. , [20] found that CAUTI had been responsible for an additional of USD589 per CAUTI in diagnostic tests and in medications. The present study reveals that amikacin sulfate bladder wash is effective in preventing CAUTI. As a vial of amikacin sulfate (500 mg) costs INR58 (approximately USD1.4), this is very cost effective especially in a developing country like ours.

Puri et al. , [21] in their study said that the risk was significantly higher for females, elderly patients, critically ill patients, and those on prolonged catheterization. The present study showed only severity of the disease (low motor score of GCS) as a statistically significant risk factor. This might be since a lower GCS corresponds to the severity of tissue injury, where there is hypermetabolism and increased protein catabolism, which eventually leads to decreased immunity that makes the person more susceptible to infections. However, the present study did not show any influence of sex, age, catheter size, duration of catheterization, and systemic use of antibiotics and steroids. This might be because of the small sample size and inclusion of long-term catheterized patients only.

Pathogenic organisms responsible for CAUTI and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern vary with time. In a study, Jha et al. , [22] found that most common organisms responsible for CAUTI were E. coli (49%), S. aureus (23%), Proteus spp. (3.6%), Klebsiella (9.71%), Pseudomonas (0.8%), and Citrobacter (2.8%). Whereas in the present study, Pseudomonas (51%), E. coli (17%), Proteus spp., Citrobacter , Klebsiella , and Acinetobacter (8% each) were the most common. Similarly, antibiotic resistance pattern also varied. In their study, Taneja et al. , [23] found the highest frequency of antibiotic resistance was for ciprofloxacin (68.6%) followed by netilmicin (60.7%), ceftazidime (58.8%), imipenem (43.7%), amikacin (43.1%), and piperacillin (39.2%). In the present study, the pattern of antibiotic resistance was ceftazidime (100%), netilmicin (83%), imipenem (75%), ciprofloxacin (75%), and meropenem (60%).

In this study, we have shown that amikacin sulfate bladder wash is very effective in preventing CAUTI. Thus it can be included in the routine catheter care, especially if catheterization is needed for more than five days. It is easy to implement and cost effective. The main limitation of this study was the small sample size and the fact that the main researcher was not blinded to the study.


 » Conclusions Top


There is a varying pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in different institutions. The most important thing to note is the fact that the bacteria have started developing resistance to higher antibiotics. This is very important since the indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to resistance, thus potentially endangering the life of a patient. This increasing resistance calls for immediate measures to use methods other than oral or parenteral antibiotics in CAUTI. We believe that this study is important because if used can decrease the development of CAUTI.

 
 » References Top

1.Kunnin CM, Genitourinary infections in the patient at risk: Extrinsic risk factors. Am J Med 1984;76:31-9.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Schaeffer AJ. Catheter associated bacteriuria. Urol Clin North Am 1986;13:35-47.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Stamm WE. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and prevention. Am J Med 1991;91:65S-71S.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Burke JP, Riley DK. Nosocomial urinary tract infection. In: Mayhall CG, editor. Hospital epidemiology and infection control. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1996. p. 139-53.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Warren JW. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:609-22.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Kunin CM. Care of the urinary catheter. In: Urinary tract infections: Detection, prevention and management. 5 th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997. p. 227-99.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Nicolle LE. Prevention and treatment of urinary catheter-related infections in older patients. Drugs Aging 1994;4:379-91.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Al Sweih N, Jamal W, Rotimi VO. Spectrum and antibiotic resistance of uropathogens isolated from hospital and community patients with urinary tract infections in two large hospitals in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract 2005;14:401-7.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Rew M. Use of catheter maintenance solutions for long-term catheters. Br J Nurs. 1999;8:708-15.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Chamberlain G, Needham P. The absorption of antibiotics from the bladder. J Urol 1976;116:172-3.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Dudley MN, Barriere SL. Antimicrobial irrigations in the prevention and treatment of catheter-related urinary tract infections. Am J Hosp Pharm 1981;38:59-65.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Van Den Broek PJ, Daha TJ, Mouton RP. Bladder irrigation with povidone-iodine in prevention of urinary-tract infections associated with intermittent urethral catheterisation. Lancet 1985;1:563-5.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Muncie HL Jr, Hoopes JM, Damron DJ, Tenney JH, Warren JW. Once-daily irrigation of long-term urethral catheters with normal saline: Lack of benefit. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:441-3.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Elliott TS, Reid L, Rao GG, Rigby RC, Woodhouse K. Bladder irrigation or irritation? Br J Urol 1989;64:391-4  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Schneeberger PM, Vreede RW, Bogdanowicz JF, van Dijk WC. A randomized study on the effect of bladder irrigation with povidone-iodine before removal of an indwelling catheter. J Hosp Infect 1992;21:223-9.  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Stamm AM, Coutinho MS. Urinary tract infection associated with indwelling bladder catheter: Incidence and risk factors. Rev Assoc Med Bras 1999;45:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Danchaivijit S, Dhiraputra C, Cherdrungsi R, Jintanothaitavorn D, Srihapol N. Catheter associated UTI. J Med Assoc Thai 2005;88:S26-30.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Platt R, Polk BF, Murdock B, Rosner B. Mortality associated with nosocomial urinary-tract infection. N Engl J Med 1982;307:637-42.  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Adukauskienλ D, Kinderyte A, Rimantas, Vitkauskiene A. Etiology, risk factors, and outcome of urinary tract infection. Medicina (Kaunas) 2006;42:805-9.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Tambyah PA, Maki DG. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is rarely symptomatic: A prospective study of 1,497 catheterized patients. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:678-82  Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Puri J, Mishra B, Mal A, Murthy NS, Thakur A, Dogra V, et al . Catheter associated urinary tract infections in neurology and neurosurgical units. J Infect 2002;44:171-5.  Back to cited text no. 21    
22.Jha N, Bapat SK. A study of sensitivity and resistance of pathogenic microorganisms causing UTI in Kathmandu valley. Kathmandu Univ Med J 2005;3:123-9.  Back to cited text no. 22    
23.Taneja N, Meharwal SK, Sharma SK, Sharma M. Significance and characterisation of pseudomonads from urinary tract specimens. J Commun Dis 2004;36:27-34.  Back to cited text no. 23    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Impact of a multidimensional infection control strategy on catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates in the adult intensive care units of 15 developing countries: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC)
Rosenthal, V.D. and Todi, S.K. and Álvarez-Moreno, C. and Pawar, M. and Karlekar, A. and Zeggwagh, A.A. and Mitrev, Z. and Udwadia, F.E. and Navoa-Ng, J.A. and Chakravarthy, M. and Salomao, R. and Sahu, S. and Dilek, A. and Kanj, S.S. and Guanche-Garcell, H. and Cuéllar, L.E. and Ersoz, G. and Nevzat-Yalcin, A. and Jaggi, N. and Medeiros, E.A. and Ye, G. and Akan, Ö.A. and Mapp, T. and Castañeda-Sabogal, A. and Matta-Cortés, L. and Sirmatel, F. and Olarte, N. and Torres-Hernández, H. and Barahona-Guzmán, N. and Fernández-Hidalgo, R. and Villamil-Gómez, W. and Sztokhamer, D. and Forciniti, S. and Berba, R. and Turgut, H. and Bin, C. and Yang, Y. and Pérez-Serrato, I. and Lastra, C.E. and Singh, S. and Ozdemir, D. and Ulusoy, S.
Infection. 2012; 40(5): 517-526
[Pubmed]
2 Impact of a multidimensional infection control strategy on catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates in the adult intensive care units of 15 developing countries: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC)
V. D. Rosenthal,S. K. Todi,C. Álvarez-Moreno,M. Pawar,A. Karlekar,A. A. Zeggwagh,Z. Mitrev,F. E. Udwadia,J. A. Navoa-Ng,M. Chakravarthy,R. Salomao,S. Sahu,A. Dilek,S. S. Kanj,H. Guanche-Garcell,L. E. Cuéllar,G. Ersoz,A. Nevzat-Yalcin,N. Jaggi,E. A. Medeiros,G. Ye,Ö. A. Akan,T. Mapp,A. Castañeda-Sabogal,L. Matta-Cortés,F. Sirmatel,N. Olarte,H. Torres-Hernández,N. Barahona-Guzmán,R. Fernández-Hidalgo,W. Villamil-Gómez,D. Sztokhamer,S. Forciniti,R. Berba,H. Turgut,C. Bin,Y. Yang,I. Pérez-Serrato,C. E. Lastra,S. Singh,D. Ozdemir,S. Ulusoy
Infection. 2012; 40(5): 517
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 7th April '04
Published by Medknow