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Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 547--551

The need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults undergoing congenital heart surgery: Impact and trends of utilization

1 Division of Cardiology, Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL, USA
2 Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin/Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
3 Division of Cardiology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA

Correspondence Address:
Salvatore Aiello
Chicago Medical School, 3333 North Chicago, IL
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_169_17

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Introduction: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) represent a population with unique health-care needs. Many patients require cardiac surgery, with some requiring postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This study aimed to identify the risk factors for the need of postoperative ECMO and characterize the impact of ECMO on admission characteristics. Methods: Data from the 2005–2012 iterations of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used. ACHD admissions over 18 years with a documented cardiac surgery were included. Univariate analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics between those requiring ECMO and those who did not. Regression analysis was done to identify the independent risk factors associated with ECMO and to determine the impact of ECMO on length, cost, and mortality of the admission. Results: A total of 186,829 admissions were included. Of these, 446 (0.2%) admissions required ECMO. Those with acute kidney injury, double-outlet right ventricle, or total anomalous pulmonary venous connection were more likely to require ECMO. ECMO was also significantly more utilized in patients undergoing septal defect repair, complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot, atrial switch, and heart transplant. The use of ECMO significantly increased length, cost, and mortality of stay. Overall mortality was 62.6% in the ECMO group. Conclusion: ECMO is only needed in a small proportion of postoperative ACHD patients. The use of ECMO significantly increases cost, length of stay and mortality in these patients. Improved identification of postoperative ACHD patients who are more likely to survive ECMO may facilitate improved survival and decreased resource utilization.


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