Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
November 2015
Volume 19 | Issue 11
Page Nos. 631-697

Online since Tuesday, November 10, 2015

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Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in children with critical illness - do we need it? p. 631
Ahmed El-Nawawy
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Postpandemic H1N1 influenza infection in ICU: Are we any wiser now? p. 633
Mohan Gurjar
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Critical illness associated with 2013-2014 influenza A (H1N1): Postpandemic characteristics, presentation and outcomes p. 636
Jonathan Wiesen, Dhruv Joshi, Jorge A Guzman, Abhijit Duggal
Introduction: The United States experienced a postpandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2013-2014. Unlike the pandemic in 2009 clinical course and outcomes associated with critical illness in this postpandemic outbreak has been only sparsely described. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit with H1N1 influenza infection in 2009-2010 (pandemic) and 2013-2014 (postpandemic). Results: Patients admitted in the postpandemic period were older (55 ± 13 vs. 45 ± 12, P = 0.002), and had a higher incidence of underlying pulmonary (17 vs. 7, P = 0.0007) and cardiac (16 vs. 8, P = 0.005) disease. Mechanical ventilation was initiated in most patients in both groups (27 vs. 21, P = 1.00). The PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was significantly higher in the pandemic group on days 1 (216 vs. 81, P = 0.0009), 3 (202 ± 99 vs. 100 ± 46, P = 0.002) and 7 (199 ± 103 vs. 113 ± 44, P = 0.019) but by day 14 no difference was seen between the groups. Rescue therapies were used in more patients in the postpandemic period (48% vs. 20%, P = 0.028), including more frequent use of prone ventilation (10 vs. 3, P = 0.015), inhaled vasodilator therapy (11 vs. 4, P = 0.015) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (4 vs. 2, P = NS). No significant differences in mortality were seen between the two cohorts. Conclusions: Compared to the 2009-2010 pandemic, the 2013-2014 H1N1 strain affected older patients with more underlying co-morbid cardio-pulmonary diseases. The patients had worse oxygenation indices and rescue modalities such as prone ventilation, inhaled epoprostenol and ECMO, were used more consistently as compared to the 2009 pandemic.
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Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study p. 642
Sumant Prabhudesai, Amruta Kanjani, Isha Bhagat, Karnam G Ravikumar, Bala Ramachandran
Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG). Results: Nineteen children were included, and 235 pairs of BG-CGMS readings were obtained. BG and CGMS had a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (P < 0.001) and a median relative absolute difference of 17.29%. On Clarke's error grid analysis, 222 (94.5%) readings were in the clinically acceptable zones (A and B). When BG was < 70, 70-180, and > 180 mg/dL, 44%, 100%, and 76.9% readings were in zones A and B, respectively (P < 0.001). The accuracy of CGMS was not affected by the presence of edema, acidosis, vasopressors, steroids, or renal replacement therapy. On receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, a CGMS reading <97 mg/dL predicted hypoglycemia (sensitivity 85.2%, specificity 75%, area under the curve [AUC] =0.85). A reading > 141 mg/dL predicted hyperglycemia (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 89.6%, AUC = 0.87). Conclusion: CGMS provides a fairly, accurate estimate of BG in children with septic shock. It is unaffected by a variety of clinical variables. The accuracy over extremes of blood sugar may be a concern. We recommend larger studies to evaluate its use for the early detection of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
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Correlation between central venous pressure and peripheral venous pressure with passive leg raise in patients on mechanical ventilation p. 648
Dharmendra Kumar, Syed Moied Ahmed, Shahna Ali, Utpal Ray, Ankur Varshney, Kashmiri Doley
Background: Central venous pressure (CVP) assesses the volume status of patients. However, this technique is not without complications. We, therefore, measured peripheral venous pressure (PVP) to see whether it can replace CVP. Aims: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between CVP and PVP after passive leg raise (PLR) in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study in Intensive Care Unit. Methods: Fifty critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation were included in the study. CVP and PVP measurements were taken using a water column manometer. Measurements were taken in the supine position and subsequently after a PLR of 45°. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman's analysis. Results: This study showed a fair correlation between CVP and PVP after a PLR of 45° (correlation coefficient, r = 0.479; P = 0.0004) when the CVP was <10 cmH 2 O. However, the correlation was good when the CVP was >10 cmH 2 O. Bland-Altman analysis showed 95% limits of agreement to be −2.912-9.472. Conclusion: PVP can replace CVP for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients.
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Framework for decision-making and management of end-of-life decisions in Intensive Care Units: A modified protocol p. 655
Arun Kumar, Alex Psirides, Namrata Maheshwari, Vipal Chawla, Amit K Mandal
End-of-life decisions are being made daily in Intensive Care Units worldwide. The spectrum of options varies from full-continued care, withholding treatment, withdrawing treatment, and active life-ending procedures depending on the institutional practices and legal framework. Considering the complexity of the situation and the legalities involved, it is important to have a structured approach toward these sensitive decisions. It does make sense to have a protocol that ensures proper documentation and helps ease the physicians involved in such decisions. Clear documentation in the format of a checklist would ensure consistency and help the entire medical team to be uniformly informed about the end-of-life plan.
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Risk factors for shock in children with dengue fever p. 661
Sriram Pothapregada, Banupriya Kamalakannan, Mahalakshmy Thulasingham
Objectives: To evaluate and analyze the clinical and laboratory parameters that were predictive of the development of shock in children with dengue fever. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective study carried out from August 2012 to July 2014 at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Results: Two hundred and fifty-four children were admitted with dengue fever and among them dengue fever without shock was present in 159 children (62.5%) and dengue fever with shock was present in 95 cases (37.4%). Various clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression between the two groups and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The most common risk factors for shock on univariate analysis were headache, retro-orbital pain, palmar erythema, joint pain, facial flush, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, bleeding, giddiness, persistent vomiting, pleural effusion, ascites, hematocrit >20% with concomitant platelet count <50,000/mm 3 on admission, deranged liver function tests, and gallbladder wall edema. On multivariate analysis, it was seen that in age >6 years, hepatomegaly, pain in the abdomen, and oliguria were the most common risk factors associated with shock in children with dengue fever. There were six deaths (2.4%) and out of them four presented with impaired consciousness (66.6%) at the time of admission. Conclusion: Age >6 years, hepatomegaly, abdomen pain, and oliguria were the most common risk factors for shock in children with dengue fever. Impaired consciousness at admission was the most ominous sign for mortality in dengue fever. Hence, these features should be identified early, monitored closely, and managed timely.
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Height measurement in the critically ill patient: A tall order in the critical care unit p. 665
Ramesh Venkataraman, Lakshmi Ranganathan, Vipin Nirmal, J Kameshwaran, CV Sheela, MV Renuka, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan
Height measurement in the critical care unit is necessary for estimating ideal body weight and providing titrated patient care. In this study, we compare three methods of height assessment and evaluate their level of correlation and inter-observer reproducibility. Heights of 100 consecutive patients were assessed independently by two nurses by supine, four point, and arm span methods. Paired sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference post-hoc analysis and Bland-Altman plots were performed to assess agreement between measurements. Arm span method showed higher mean height compared to supine and four point methods. Mean heights derived by supine and four point measurements were similar to each other but were significantly different from that of arm span method (P < 0.001). Inter-observer correlation of the measured heights was very good among all three methods. The supine method seems to be easy, accurate, and reproducible in our study.
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Physiotherapy practices in Intensive Care Units across Maharashtra p. 669
Ujwal Lakshman Yeole, Ankita Ramesh Chand, Biplab B Nandi, Pravin P Gawali, Roshan G Adkitte
Purpose: To find out the current physiotherapy practices in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) across Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: Study design was exploratory cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were sent to the physiotherapists working in hospitals across Maharashtra state, India. Four weeks for completion of questionnaire was given in an attempt to ensure good response rates. Result: Of 200, 73 questionnaires were received representing a 36% response rate. The study revealed that 76% of the respondents were bachelors qualified, 15% were masters in physiotherapy with only 4% specialized in cardio-respiratory physiotherapy; 82% had <5 years experience in ICU. Almost 19% had not at all attended any seminars/workshops related to ICU management while 61% attended up to three within last 2 years. The availability of a physiotherapist during the night was affirmed by 63%, 58% responded initiation of physiotherapy to be "always physician referred" and 39% mentioned "physiotherapist initiated." Almost 80% performed chest wall techniques, 86% positioning, 27% postural drainage, 5% manual hyperinflation, 12% application of nebulizer, and 56% bedsores management. Only 5% reported involvement in ventilator setting, 11% had their opinion sought before weaning from ventilator, 29% practiced noninvasive ventilation, 11% were involved in decision-making for extubation and 44% reported involvement in patient family education. Conclusion: The study showed that physiotherapists among the responding ICUs surveyed lack in experience and updated knowledge. Physician reference is necessary to initiate physiotherapy and there exists no established criteria for physiotherapy treatment in ICU. All physiotherapists were routinely involved in chest physiotherapy, mobilization, and positioning.
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Neuroimaging findings in a case of cerebral fat embolism syndrome with delayed recovery p. 674
Divya Sethi, Shveta Kajal, Anupriya Saxena
A young male with multiple lower limb fractures admitted to our Intensive Care Unit was diagnosed with cerebral fat embolism syndrome (FES) based on clinical features and initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which showed multiple hyperintensities on T2-weighted imaging, involving bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, predominantly in the watershed territory. The serial MRI done at 3 weeks showed more prominent and larger sized lesions which were in line with the patient's initial low Glasgow Coma Score and indicated severe cerebral insult. The patient responded well to supportive intensive care therapy; his neurological recovery though slow was consistent as he could return to his full functional status after 6 months. The follow-up MRI showed resolution of the most of earlier lesions. This indicates potentially good outcomes even in severe cases of cerebral FES with appropriate medical care.
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Anticipated and unanticipated complications of severe dengue in a primigravida p. 678
Madiha Hashmi, Ghulam Zainab, Farah Khan
As the incidence of dengue is rising among adults more cases of dengue fever are being reported during pregnancy. Physiological changes of pregnancy mask the pathognomonic features of severe dengue such as increased hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia and a high index of suspicion are required in endemic areas. Massive hemorrhage may complicate operative deliveries in unsuspected patients. World Health Organization recommends that all patients with severe dengue should be admitted to a hospital with access to intensive care facilities and blood transfusion. We present the successful management of hemorrhage and unanticipated complications of severe dengue in a young primigravida admitted to the Intensive Care Unit after an emergency cesarean section.
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Rare treatment option for a common pediatric airway problem p. 681
Raylene Dias, Chandrahas T Deshmukh, Milind S Tullu, Chhaya Divecha, Sunil Karande
Laryngomalacia is a common cause of respiratory obstruction with stridor in infants. Although most cases resolve spontaneously, severe laryngomalacia needs surgical intervention. Tracheostomies have been the mainstay of treatment. However, this procedure was associated with high morbidity. At present, newer modalities of treatment are being tried. We discuss successful management of an infant having severe laryngomalacia (who had three failed extubation trials) with glossoepiglottopexy.
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Cow dung powder poisoning p. 684
Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen, Senthil Kumar Kaliannan, Pavan Kumar Dammalapati
Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.
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Massive cerebral fat embolism leading to brain death: A rare presentation p. 687
Richa Aggarwal, Sugata Pal, Kapil Dev Soni, Shivanand Gamangatti
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) typically consists of a triad of neurological, pulmonary, and cutaneous symptoms. There exist few case reports of FES involving central nervous system (CNS) only without pulmonary involvement. In most of such cases, CNS involvement is partial, and patients recover fully neurologically within days. We report a rare and unusual case of massive cerebral fat embolism that led to brain death in trauma patient.
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Severe respiratory failure following ventriculopleural shunt p. 690
Shahzad Alam, Nagaraju M Manjunath
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure has been used for long to treat hydrocephalus in children. The principle of shunting is to establish a communication between the CSF and a drainage cavity (peritoneum, right atrium, and pleura). Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is used most commonly, followed secondly by ventriculopleural shunt (VPLS). Hydrothorax due to excessive CSF accumulation is a rare complication following both the type of shunts and is more frequently seen with VPLS. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with massive CSF hydrothorax with respiratory failure following VPLS. The aim of the article is to highlight early recognition of this rare and life-threatening condition, which could easily be missed if proper history is not available.
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Unrecognized catatonia as a cause for delayed weaning in Intensive Care Unit p. 693
Rupesh Gupta, Saurabh Saigal, Rajnish Joshi, Praveen Tagore, Nirendra Rai, Krishna Prasad
The cause of altered sensorium in critical care settings includes metabolic derangements, drug and toxin overdose, central nervous system infections, neurodegenerative disorders, vascular events, hypo-perfusion states, and septic encephalopathy. Here, we present a case of an elderly woman who presented to us with altered sensorium with respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Her metabolic parameters, imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid study were all normal despite that she continued to remain in altered sensorium and had an unrecognized behavioral state that delayed her weaning.
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Screening test for assessment of nutritional status in critically ill elderly patients p. 695
Shakti Bedanta Mishra, Armin Ahmed, Afzal Azim
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Is it the time to integrate "sono cardiopulmonary resuscitation" in cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm of traumatic cardiac arrest? p. 696
Sanjeev Bhoi, Tej Prakash Sinha, Prakash Ranjan Mishra
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