Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January 2016
Volume 20 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-59

Online since Monday, January 11, 2016

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EDITORIAL  

Is dexmedetomidine a favorable agent for cerebral hemodynamics? p. 1
Georgia G Tsaousi, Federico Bilotta
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173675  
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RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Comparison of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance with other airway assessment tests for predicting difficult endotracheal intubation p. 3
Jigisha Prahladrai Badheka, Pratik M Doshi, Ashutosh M Vyas, Nirav Jentilal Kacha, Vandana S Parmar
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173678  
Background: Various anatomical measurements and noninvasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Upper lip bite test (ULBT) and ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) are claimed to have high predictability. Hence, we have conducted this study to compare the predictive value of ULBT and RHTMD with the following parameters: Mallampati grading, inter-incisor gap, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, head and neck movements, and horizontal length of mandible for predicting difficult intubation. Materials and Methods: In this single blinded, prospective, observational study involving 170 adult patients of either sex belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I-III scheduled to undergo general anesthesia were recruited. All patients were subjected to the preoperative airway assessment and, the above parameters were recorded correlated with Cormack and Lehane grade and analyzed. The number of intubation attempts and use of intubation aids were also noted. Results: ULBT and RHTMD had highest sensitivity (96.64%, 90.72%), specificity (82.35%, 80.39%), positive predictive value (92.74%, 91.53%), and negative predictive value (91.3%, 78.8%), respectively, compared to other parameters. While odds ratio and likelihood ratio >1 for all the tests. Conclusion: ULBT can be used as a simple bedside screening test for prediction of difficult intubation, but it should be combined with other airway assessment tests for better airway predictability. RHTMD can also be used as an acceptable alternative.
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Cerebral vascular effects of loading dose of dexmedetomidine: A Transcranial Color Doppler study p. 9
Appavoo Arulvelan, Sethuraman Manikandan, Hari Venkat Easwer, Kesavapisharady Krishnakumar
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173680  
Background: Dexmedetomidine has been widely used in critical care settings because of its property of maintaining stable hemodynamics and inducing conscious sedation. The use of dexmedetomidine is in increasing trend particularly in patients with neurological disorders. Very few studies have focused on the cerebral hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine. This study is aimed to address this issue. Methods: Thirty patients without any intracranial pathology were included in this study. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity obtained from transcranial color Doppler was used to assess the cerebral hemodynamic indices. Mean flow velocity (mFV), pulsatility index (PI), cerebral vascular resistant index (CVRi), estimated cerebral perfusion pressure (eCPP), and zero flow pressure (ZFP) were calculated bilaterally at baseline and after infusion of injection Dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/Kg over 10 min. Results: Twenty-six patients completed the study protocol. After administration of loading dose of dexmedetomidine, mFV and eCPP values were significantly decreased in both hemispheres (P < 0.05); PI, CVRi, and ZFP values showed significant increase (P < 0.05) after dexmedetomidine infusion. Conclusion: Increase in PI, CVRi, and ZFP suggests that there is a possibility of an increase in distal cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) with loading dose of dexmedetomidine. Decrease in mFV and eCPP along with an increase in CVR may lead to a decrease in cerebral perfusion. This effect can be exaggerated in patients with preexisting neurological illness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on various other pathological conditions involving brain like traumatic brain injury and vascular malformations.
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Impact of dialysis practice patterns on outcomes in acute kidney injury in Intensive Care Unit p. 14
Rajeev A Annigeri, Venkatappa Nandeesh, Ramanathan Karuniya, Sasikumar Rajalakshmi, Ramesh Venkataraman, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173682  
Aim: Recent advances in dialysis therapy have made an impact on the clinical practice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in acute kidney injury (AKI) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We studied the impact of RRT practice changes on outcomes in AKI in ICU over a period of 8 years. Subjects and Methods: AKI patients requiring RRT in ICU referred to a nephrologist during two different periods (period-1: Between May 2004 and May 2007, n = 69; period-2: Between August 2008 and May 2011, n = 93) were studied. The major changes in the dialysis practice during the period-2, compared to period-1 were introduction of prolonged intermittent RRT (PIRRT), early dialysis for metabolic acidosis, early initiation of RRT for anuria and positive fluid balance and use of bicarbonate-based fluids for continuous RRT (CRRT) instead of lactate buffer. The primary study outcome was 28-day hospital mortality. Results: The mean age was 53.8 ± 16.1 years and 72.6% were male. Introduction of PIRRT resulted in 37% reduction in utilization of CRRT during period-2 (from 85.5% to 53.7%). The overall mortality was high (68%) but was significantly reduced during period-2 compared to period-1 (59% vs. 79.7%, P = 0.006). Metabolic acidosis but not the mode of RRT, was the significant factor which influenced mortality. Conclusions: Adaption of PIRRT resulted in 37% reduction of utilization of CRRT. The mortality rate was significantly reduced during the period of adaption of PIRRT, possibly due to early initiation of RRT in the latter period for indications such as anuria and metabolic acidosis.
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Measurement of muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in Intensive Care Unit p. 21
Nidhi R Samosawala, K Vaishali, B Chakravarthy Kalyana
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173683  
Background: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) acquired weakness is a common complication in critically ill patients affecting their prognosis. The handheld dynamometry is an objective method in detecting minimum muscle strength change, which has an impact on the physical function of ICU survivors. The minimal change in the force can be measured in units of weight such as pounds or kilograms. Aim of the Study: To detect the changes in peripheral muscle strength with handheld dynamometer in the early stage of ICU stay and to observe the progression of muscle weakness. Methodology: Three upper and three lower limb muscles force measured with handheld dynamometer during ICU stay. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to detect changes in force generated by muscle on alternate days of ICU stay. Results: There was a reduction in peripheral muscle strength from day 3 to day 5 as well from day 5 to day 7 of ICU stay (P < 0.01). The average reduction in peripheral muscle strength was 11.8% during ICU stay. Conclusion: This study showed a progressive reduction in peripheral muscle strength as measured by handheld dynamometer during early period of ICU stay.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Illness severity and organ dysfunction scoring in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit p. 27
Krishna Mohan Gulla, Anil Sachdev
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173685  
The illness severity scoring systems provide objective measures for inter- and intra-unit comparisons with time and also provide useful information for comparing the severity of illness of patients, at the time of enrollment into clinical trials. These scores are an essential part of the improvement in clinical decisions and in stratifying patients with poor outcomes. Appropriate application of these models helps in decision-making at the right time and in decreasing mortality. However, it is also important to note that the choice of illness scores should accurately match the setting in which they are designed. In Indian setting, there is no Pediatric Intensive Care Unit illness severity score is designed until now as per our patient profile and resources. The purpose of this review article is to provide an idea regarding the evolution of illness severity scores in developed countries till date along with their utility. This review emphasizes the need for the development of pediatric illness severity score as per the local resources.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

Parenteral nutrition support: Beyond gut feeling? Quality control study of parenteral nutrition practices in a Tertiary Care Hospital p. 36
Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Bhuvaneshwari Shankar, Lakshmi Ranganathan, DK Daphnee, Adithya Bharadwaj, Ramesh Venkataraman
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173687  
Background: Enteral nutrition (EN) is preferred over parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospitalized patients based on International consensus guidelines. Practice patterns of PN in developing countries have not been documented. Objectives: To assess practice pattern and quality of PN support in a tertiary hospital setting in Chennai, India. Methods: Retrospective record review of patients admitted between February 2010 and February 2012. Results: About 351,008 patients were admitted to the hospital in the study period of whom 29,484 (8.4%) required nutritional support. About 70 patients (0.24%) received PN, of whom 54 (0.18%) received PN for at least three days. Common indications for PN were major gastrointestinal surgery (55.6%), intolerance to EN (25.9%), pancreatitis (5.6%), and gastrointestinal obstruction (3.7%). Conclusions: The proportion of patients receiving PN was very low. Quality issues were identified relating to appropriateness of indication and calories and proteins delivered. This study helps to introspect and improve the quality of nutrition support.
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Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma following a snake bite: Are we missing it? p. 40
KV Praveen Kumar, S Praveen Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173688  
Introduction: We report a case series of acute angle closure following snake bite, their clinical features, treatment, and the outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ocular examination was done in all the snake bite victims admitted over 1-year period. The systemic status, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), treatment instituted, and outcomes were recorded for all cases of acute angle closure. Results: Six patients developed angle closure following snake bite. Average IOP was in the range of 32-56 mmHg. Treatment was initiated as for cases of acute angle closure. Two patients succumbed and the other four recovered, had normal IOP at follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma is a rare complication of snake bite. Timely detection and management will result in good visual prognosis. Treating physicians should be aware of this rare sight-threatening complication so that a preliminary ophthalmic examination can be sought and the visual morbidity be prevented.
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Prone position and pressure control inverse ratio ventilation in H1N1 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome p. 44
Pradeep M Venkategowda, S Manimala Rao, Yogesh R Harde, Mithilesh K Raut, Dnyaneshwar P Mutkule, Kartik Munta, Mallela V Rao
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173690  
Aim: To observe the 28 and 90 days mortality associated with prone position and assist control-pressure control (with inverse ratio) ventilation (ACPC-IRV). Materials and Methods: All patients who were admitted to our medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) who are positive for H1N1 viral infection with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in prone position were included in our prospective observational study. Six patients who are positive for H1N1 required invasive ventilation in prone position. These patients were planned to ventilate in prone for 16 h and in supine for 8 h daily until P/F ratio >150 with FiO 2 of 0.6 or less and positive end-expiratory pressure <10 cm of H 2 O. Results: At admission, among these six patients the mean tidal volume generated was about 376.6 ml which was in the range of 6-8 ml/kg predicted body weight. The mean lung injury score was 3.79, mean PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was 52.66 and mean oxygenation index was 29.83. The mean duration of ventilation was 9.4 days (225.6 h). The ICU length of stay was 11.16 days. There was no mortality at 28 and 90 days. Conclusion: Early prone combined with ACPC-IRV in H1N1 patients having severe ARDS can be used as a rescue therapy and it should be confirmed by large observational studies.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Transesophageal echocardiography probe shutdown in a patient with hyperthermia p. 50
Vandana Saluja, Gaganpal Singh, Chandrakant Pandey
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173692  
The use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been increasing over the past few years. It is considered a semi-invasive monitor and a safe diagnostic device. Though complications are rare, they must be known to operators who frequently perform TEE. TEE probes are known to cause tissue heating and damage on prolonged use. In this case report, we describe shutdown of the transesophageal probe in our patient with high-grade fever.
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Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in patient with autoimmune hepatitis and purpura fulminans p. 52
Neha Rathor, Vikas Khillan, SK Sarin
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173694  
Strongyloidiosis is usually an asymptomatic chronic nematodal disease. The term hyperinfection is used to denote autoinfection, a phenomenon in which the number of worms increases enormously. Development or exacerbation of gastrointestinal and pulmonary symptoms is seen, (A) and the detection of increased numbers of larvae in stool and or sputum is the hallmark. It is known to occur with a change in immune status of the host; this can occur due to immunosuppressants. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is also known to suppress host immunity. Due to the nonspecific presentation, the diagnosis is frequently missed, and the outcome remains poor with 15-87% mortality despite therapy. We report here a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection following immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune hepatitis and concomitant CMV infection with purpura fulminance and frank sepsis, with fatal outcome.
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Stuck with pancytopenia in dengue fever: Evoke for hemophagocytic syndrome p. 55
Manoj Lakhotia, Hans Raj Pahadiya, Ronak Gandhi, Gopal Raj Prajapati, Akanksha Choudhary
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173695  
The hemophagocytic syndrome is an atypical and rare manifestation of dengue fever (DF). We describe a 15-year-old girl developing DF associated hemophagocytic syndrome who responded with supportive treatment.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Cashew nut shell liquid poisoning p. 57
Balaji Balasubramanian, Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen, Senthil Kumar Kaliannan, Karthikeyan Murugesan
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173696  
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Central venous pressure and peripheral venous pressure, however correlated are still both in the gray-area p. 58
Matthieu Pissot, Alexandre Salvadori, Kevin Kearns, Clement Dubost
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.173698  
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