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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April 2018
Volume 22 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 209-315

Online since Wednesday, April 18, 2018

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RESEARCH ARTICLES  

The impact of dopamine on insulin secretion in healthy controls p. 209
Lisa J Underland, Erika R Mark, Ranjitha Katikaneni, Rubina Heptulla
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_175_17  
Objective: Dopamine is very commonly used in the critical care setting and impacts glucose homeostasis. In some studies, it is noted to increase insulin resistance or decrease insulin secretion. The role of insulin secretion in response to dopamine is incompletely understood. Methods: Eight individuals underwent a hyperglycemic clamp with a dopamine infusion, and eight controls underwent hyperglycemic clamp alone. Insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured at various time points. An index of insulin sensitivity (M/I) was calculated. Statistical comparison between the control and treatment arm was done using repeated measures ANOVA. The data is expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-dopamine infusion time points in the study individuals only. Data was considered to be statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results: On assessing the treatment group before and during dopamine infusion, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were higher at the time of the infusion (P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively). The index of insulin sensitivity was not statistically different. There was a significant decrease in insulin (P = 0.002), C-peptide (P = 0.005), and NE (P < 0.0001) concentrations in the treatment group, compared to the controls. Glucagon concentration was higher in the treatment group (P = 0.02). Conclusion: In this study, dopamine infusion did not adversely impact insulin secretion.
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Knowledge and attitude of ER and intensive care unit physicians toward Do-Not-Resuscitate in a Tertiary Care Center in Saudi Arabia: A survey study p. 214
Alaa Gouda, Norah Alrasheed, Alaa Ali, Ahmad Allaf, Najd Almudaiheem, Youssuf Ali, Ahmad Alghabban, Sami Alsalolami
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_523_17  
Introduction: Only a few studies from Arab Muslim countries address do-not-resuscitate (DNR) practice. The knowledge of physicians about the existing policy and the attitude towards DNR were surveyed. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the knowledge of the participants of the local DNR policy and barriers of addressing DNR including religious background. Methods: A questionnaire has been distributed to Emergency Room (ER) and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) physicians. Results: A total of 112 physicians mostly Muslims (97.3%). About 108 (96.4%) were aware about the existence of DNR policy in our institute. 107 (95.5%) stated that DNR is not against Islamic. Only (13.4%) of the physicians have advance directives and (90.2%) answered they will request to be DNR if they have terminal illness. Lack of patients and families understanding (51.8%) and inadequate training (35.7%) were the two most important barriers for effective DNR discussion. Patients and families level of education (58.0%) and cultural factors (52.7%) were the main obstacles in initiating a DNR order. Conclusions: There is a lack of knowledge about DNR policy which makes the optimization of DNR process difficult. Most physicians wish DNR for themselves and their patients at the end of life, but only a few of them have advance directives. The most important barriers for initializing and discussing DNR were lack of patient understanding, level of education, and the culture of patients. Most of the Muslim physicians believe that DNR is not against Islamic rules. We suggest that the DNR concept should be a part of any training program.
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Antibiotic prescription, organisms and its resistance pattern in patients admitted to respiratory ICU with respiratory infection in Mysuru p. 223
M Mahendra, BS Jayaraj, KS Lokesh, SK Chaya, Vivek Vardhan Veerapaneni, Sneha Limaye, Raja Dhar, Rajesh Swarnakar, Shrikant Ambalkar, PA Mahesh
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_409_17  
Aim of Study: Respiratory infections account for significant morbidity, mortality and expenses to patients getting admitted to ICU. Antibiotic resistance is a major worldwide concern in ICU, including India. It is important to know the antibiotic prescribing pattern in ICU, organisms and its resistance pattern as there is sparse data on Indian ICUs. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective study from August 2015 to February 2016. All patients getting admitted to RICU with respiratory infection who were treated with antibiotics were included into study. Demographic details, comorbidities, Clinco-pathological score (CPI) on day1 and 2 of admission, duration of ICU admission, number of antibiotics used, antibiotic prescription, antimicrobial resistance pattern of patients were collected using APRISE questionnaire. Results: During study period 352 patients were screened and 303 patients were included into study. Mean age was 56.05±16.37 and 190 (62.70%) were men. Most common diagnosis was Pneumonia (66%). Piperacillin-tazobactam was most common empirical antibiotic used. We found 60% resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam. Acinetobacter baumanii was the most common organism isolated (29.2%) and was highly resistant to Carbapenem (60%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant to Amikacin (45%), piperacillin (55%) and Ceftazidime (50%). Conclusion: Piperacillin-tazobactam was the most common antibiotic prescribed to patients with respiratory infection admitted to ICU. More than half of patients (60%) had resistance to the empirical antibiotic used in our ICU, highlighting the need for antibiogram for each ICU. Thirty six percent of patient had prior antibiotic use and had mainly gram negative organisms with high resistance to commonly used antibiotics.
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Predictors of mortality in acute kidney injury patients admitted to medicine intensive care unit in a Rural Tertiary Care Hospital p. 231
Amrish Saxena, Shrikant V Meshram
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_462_17  
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a challenging problem faced by intensive care clinicians worldwide, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based prospective, observational study was conducted in patients of AKI admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Department of Medicine in a rural tertiary care hospital located in central India. Data of all consecutive AKI inpatients related to demographic variables, clinical profile, and laboratory investigations were collected from patient's medical records. Results: Of the total 229 AKI patients enrolled in this study, 65 (28.4%) patients died during their hospital stay. The presence of metabolic acidosis, hypotension, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and Acute Physiologic Assesment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE 2) score, advanced AKI stage, higher serum creatinine and blood urea levels on diagnosis of AKI and the peak rise in their level within 48 h of diagnosis of AKI, the use of mechanical ventilator, leukocytosis, and hyperkalemia were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in AKI patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The overall in-hospital mortality in patients of AKI admitted to medicine-ICU was 28.4%. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI (24.5%). The presence of metabolic acidosis, hypotension, GCS and APACHE 2 score, advanced AKI stage, higher serum creatinine, and blood urea levels on diagnosis of AKI and the peak rise in their level within 48 h of diagnosis of AKI, use of mechanical ventilator, leukocytosis, and hyperkalemia were associated with in-hospital mortality in AKI patients.
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Thromboelastographic analysis of hemostatic abnormalities in dengue patients admitted in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit: A cross-sectional study p. 238
VK Sureshkumar, Deepak Vijayan, Shamim Kunhu, Zuhail Mohamed, Sujith Thomas, Muraleedharan Raman
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_486_17  
Background: Dengue fever is an important tropical infection causing significant mortality. The pathophysiology of hematological abnormalities in dengue remains poorly studied. In this study, we analyzed the hematological abnormalities by thromboelastography (TEG). Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated complicated dengue patients with TEG. Thromboelastographic variables were categorized into six patterns: factor deficiency, platelet dysfunction, enzymatic hypercoagulability, combined enzymatic and platelet hypercoagulability, primary fibrinolysis, and secondary hyperfibrinolysis. Results: Twenty-five patients were analyzed for coagulation abnormalities by TEG. Coagulation factor deficiency pattern was noted in 11 patients (44%) whereas 3 patients (12%) were found to have low fibrinogen level pattern. Low platelet function was noted in 4 (16%) patients. Enzymatic hypercoagulability and combined enzymatic and platelet hypercoagulability were noted in one patient each (4.5%). Secondary fibrinolysis was noted in 1 patient (5%) and primary fibrinolysis in 3 (15.8%) patients. Factor deficiency pattern and low fibrinogen pattern were not significantly associated with hepatitis (P > 0.05). Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was not found to be significantly associated with factor deficiency pattern (P = 0.10) and low fibrinogen pattern (P = 0.20). Platelet count was not found to be significantly associated with platelet function (P = 0.54). Conclusion: Factor deficiency pattern was the major abnormality noted in dengue patients followed by platelet dysfunction and primary fibrinolysis. Platelet count did not show significant association with platelet function. aPTT did not show significant association with factor deficiency and low fibrinogen patterns. Factor deficiency pattern and low fibrinogen pattern did not show significant association with hepatitis.
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Impact of “Stroke Code”-Rapid response team: An attempt to improve intravenous thrombolysis rate and to shorten Door-to-Needle time in acute ischemic stroke p. 243
Sushma K Gurav, Kapil G Zirpe, RS Wadia, Avinash Naniwadekar, Prajakta U Pote, Amit Tungenwar, Abhijeet M Deshmukh, Srikanta Mohopatra, Balakrishna Nimavat, Prasad Surywanshi
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_504_17  
Objective: “Stroke code” (SC) implementation in hospitals can improve the rate of thrombolysis and the timeline in care of stroke patient. Materials and Methods: A prospective data of patients treated for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after implementation of “SC” (post-SC era) were analyzed (2015–2016) and compared with the retrospective data of patients treated in the “pre-SC era.” Parameters such as symptom-to-door, door-to-physician, door-to-imaging, door-to-needle (DTN), and symptom-to-needle time were calculated. The severity of stroke was calculated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) before and after treatment. Results: Patients presented with stroke symptoms in pre- and post-SC era (695 vs. 610) and, out of these, patients who came in window period constituted 148 (21%) and 210 (34%), respectively. Patients thrombolyzed in pre- and post-SC era were 44 (29.7%) and 65 (44.52%), respectively. Average DTN time was 104.95 min in pre-SC era and reduced to 67.28 min (P < 0.001) post-SC implementation. Percentage of patients thrombolyzed within DTN time ≤60 min in pre-SC era and SC era was 15.90% and 55.38%, respectively. Conclusion: Implementation of SC helped us to increase thrombolysis rate in AIS and decrease DTN time.
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GUIDELINES Top

Definition of terms used in limitation of treatment and providing palliative care at the end of life: The Indian council of medical research commission report p. 249
Naveen Salins, Roop Gursahani, Roli Mathur, Shivakumar Iyer, Stanley Macaden, Nagesh Simha, Raj Kumar Mani, MR Rajagopal
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_165_18  
Background: Indian hospitals, in general, lack policies on the limitation of inappropriate life-sustaining interventions at the end of life. To facilitate discussion, preparation of guidelines and framing of laws, terminologies relating to the treatment limitation, and providing palliative care at the end-of-life care (EOLC) need to be defined and brought up to date. Methodology: This consensus document on terminologies and definitions of terminologies was prepared under the aegis of the Indian Council of Medical Research. The consensus statement was created using Nominal Group and Delphi Method. Results: Twenty-five definitions related to the limitations of treatment and providing palliative care at the end of life were created by reviewing existing international documents and suitably modifying it to the Indian sociocultural context by achieving national consensus. Twenty-five terminologies defined within the scope of this document are (1) terminal illness, (2) actively dying, (3) life-sustaining treatment, (4) potentially inappropriate treatment, (5) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), (6) do not attempt CPR, (7) withholding life-sustaining treatment, (8) withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, (9) euthanasia (10) active shortening of the dying process, (11) physician-assisted suicide, (12) palliative care, (13) EOLC, (14) palliative sedation, (15) double effect, (16) death, (17) best interests, (18) health-care decision-making capacity, (19) shared decision-making, (20) advance directives, (21) surrogates, (22) autonomy, (23) beneficence, (24) nonmaleficence, and (25) justice.
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Practice guidelines for nutrition in critically Ill patients: A relook for indian scenario Highly accessed article p. 263
Yatin Mehta, JD Sunavala, Kapil Zirpe, Niraj Tyagi, Sunil Garg, Saswati Sinha, Bhuvaneshwari Shankar, Sanghamitra Chakravarti, MN Sivakumar, Sambit Sahu, Pradeep Rangappa, Tanmay Banerjee, Anshu Joshi, Ganesh Kadhe
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_3_18  
Background and Aim: Intensive-care practices and settings may differ for India in comparison to other countries. While international guidelines are available to direct the use of enteral nutrition (EN), there are no recommendations specific to Indian settings. Advisory board meetings were arranged to develop the practice guidelines specific to Indian context, for the use of EN in critically ill patients and to overcome challenges in this field. Methods: Various existing guidelines, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, and review articles were reviewed for their contextual relevance and strength. A systematic grading of practice guidelines by advisory board was done based on strength of the supporting evidence. Wherever Indian studies were not available, references were taken from the international guidelines. Results: Based on the literature review, the recommendations for developing the practice guidelines were made as per the grading criteria agreed upon by the advisory board. The recommendations were to address challenges regarding EN versus parenteral nutrition; nutrition screening and assessment; nutrition in hemodynamically unstable; route of nutrition; tube feeding and challenges; tolerance; optimum calorie-protein requirements; selection of appropriate enteral feeding formula; micronutrients and immune-nutrients; standard nutrition in hepatic, renal, and respiratory diseases and documentation of nutrition practices. Conclusion: This paper summarizes the optimum nutrition practices for critically ill patients. The possible solutions to overcome the challenges in this field are presented as practice guidelines at the end of each section. These guidelines are expected to provide guidance in critical care settings regarding appropriate critical-care nutrition practices and to set up Intensive Care Unit nutrition protocols.
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Expert consensus document on management of ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: Adaptation of 2012 ESC guidelines p. 274
Tiny Nair, Rajesh Agrawal, Sandeep Bansal, Anjanlal Dutta, Raja Ray, Saumitra Ray
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_312_17  
In 2012, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines provided recommendations on the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The recommendation from these guidelines is restricted to the European subcontinent. To adapt the updated recommendations for Indian subset of STEMI patients, a panel of experts in the management of STEMI provided their expert opinions. This document provides expert consensus on adapting 2012 ESC STEMI guidelines recommendations in Indian setting. Document also discussed “India-specific” relevant literature to support the consensus opinions provided in the management of STEMI.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Pressure ulcer and nutrition p. 283
Seied Hadi Saghaleini, Kasra Dehghan, Kamran Shadvar, Sarvin Sanaie, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Zohreh Ostadi
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_277_17  
Pressure ulcers can diminish global life quality, contribute to rapid mortality in some patients and pose a significant cost to health-care organizations. Accordingly, their prevention and management are highly important. Nutritional deprivation and insufficient dietary intake are the key risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers and impaired wound healing. Unplanned weight loss is a major risk factor for malnutrition and pressure ulcer development. Suboptimal nutrition interferes with the function of the immune system, collagen synthesis, and tensile strength. No laboratory test can exactly define an individual's nutritional status. Although serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and retinol-binding protein as well as anthropometric measures such as height, weight, and body mass index and the other laboratory values may be suitable to establish the overall prognosis, still they might not well represent the nutritional status. Although the ideal nutrient intake to encourage wound healing is unknown, increased needs for energy, protein, zinc, and Vitamins A, C, and E and also amino acids such as arginine and glutamine have been documented. Hydration plays a vital role in the preservation and repair of skin integrity. Dehydration disturbs cell metabolism and wound healing. Adequate fluid intake is necessary to support the blood flow to wounded tissues and to prevent additional breakdown of the skin. The main aim of the present article is to review the current evidence related to hydration and nutrition for bedsore prevention and management in adults.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Epidemiological analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacterial infections in adult live donor liver transplant patients p. 290
Ajeet Singh, Deepak Govil, Usha Krishan Baveja, Anand Gupta, Neha Tandon, Shrikanth Srinivasan, Sachin Gupta, Sweta J Patel, Sanjiv Saigal, Arvinder Singh Soin
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_206_17  
Introduction: Bacterial infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving solid-organ transplants. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) pathogens are the most important pathogenic bacteria infecting these patients. Aim: This study aims to evaluate for the incidence and characteristics of ESBL-positive organism, to look for the clinical outcomes in ESBL-positive infected cases, and to evaluate and draft the antibiotic policy in posttransplant patients during the first 28 days posttransplant. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective data analysis of liver transplant recipients infected with ESBL culture-positive infections. All the culture sites such as blood, urine, and endotracheal tube aspirates were screened for the first ESBL infection they had and noted. This data were collected till day 28 posttransplant. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the most common organism were also noted. Results: A total of 484 patients was screened and 116 patients had ESBL-positive cultures. Out of these, 54 patients had infections and 62 patients were ESBL colonizers. The primary infection site was abdominal fluid (40.7%), with Klebsiella accounting for most of the ESBL infections. Colistin was the most sensitive antibiotic followed by tigecycline. The overall mortality was 11.4% and 31 out of 54 ESBL-infected patients died. Conclusions: Infections with ESBL-producing organism in liver transplant recipients has a high mortality and very limited therapeutic options.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Cerebrospinal fluid lactate as a prognostic indicator in postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis and use of intrathecal colistin p. 297
Pradeepkumar Hiremath, Pradeep Rangappa, Ipe Jacob, Karthik Rao
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_418_17  
Postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis (PNBM) is an emergency and requires early diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. The cornerstone of diagnosis is microbiological analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytochemical characteristics such as leucocyte count, CSF glucose, and protein concentration and CSF: Serum glucose ratio. However, this is often misleading in PNBM. The role of CSF lactate assay for diagnosis and prognosis has been debated. This case report looks into the serial measurement of CSF lactates in PNBM. It also looks into the role of intrathecal colistin. CSF lactate showed a steady decrease corresponding to improvement in clinical condition. Hence, CSF lactate could have a better prognostic value than other conventional markers in PNBM. Intrathecal colistin, in conjunction with the standard antibiotics, can contribute to a quick resolution of the condition.
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Paradoxical reaction to midazolam in preterm neonates: A case series p. 300
Mahendra Kumar Gupta, Jayashree A Mondkar, Deepraj Hegde
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_36_17  
Midazolam is a drug belonging to the benzodiazepine group and is used commonly for seizure control as well as preoperative and procedure-related sedation in neonates. Many adverse effects of midazolam have been reported in the past. Paradoxical stimulation of the central nervous system such as restlessness, nightmare, and hallucinations as well as hypomanic behavior has been reported in adults and children. Seizure is a rare adverse effect of midazolam. Cases of myoclonic movements associated with midazolam have been published worldwide; however, none so far have been reported from India. We report two newborns in our Neonatal Unit, who developed myoclonic seizure after the administration of midazolam. Both of these neonates were preterm, require multiple invasive and noninvasive investigations also leads to parent and clinician stress.
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Cervical myelopathy in a child: A rare cause of hypoventilation syndrome presenting with Type 2 respiratory failure p. 303
Alolika Mondal, Prabhas Prasun Giri
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_451_17  
Hypoventilation syndrome leading to Type 2 respiratory failure is not a rare cause of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Common causes in pediatric population are Guillain–Barre syndrome and various central nervous system disorders such as encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and drugs. Any injury or disease in the cervical cord can also produce respiratory paralysis causing respiratory failure. Here, we present two cases of mixed cerebral palsy with cervical myelopathy due to compression effect of fractured segments of first and second cervical vertebrae. Both of them presented with Type 2 respiratory failure.
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Atypical neurological manifestations of chikungunya fever: Two case reports p. 306
Subodh Kumar Mahto, Pulin Kumar Gupta, Akanksha Singh, Ramesh Chand Meena
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_459_17  
Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an arboviral disease which is transmitted by a mosquito bite (Aedes aegypti). Fever, polyarthralgia, and maculopapular rash are hallmark clinical manifestations of this disease. These manifestations are self-liming and complete recovery is seen in most of the cases. However, atypical and lethal complications such as myocarditis, hepatitis, Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS), and meningoencephalitis have been reported in few cases of CHIK. We hereby report two cases of chikungunya infection where rare and atypical manifestations of CHIK, i.e., GBS with bilateral lower motor facial nerve palsy, and meningoencephalitis with epidermal necrosis were seen.
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First reported case of respiratory syncytial virus infection causing guillain–Barré syndrome p. 309
Scott A Helgeson, Alexander J Heckman, Dana M Harris
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_171_17  
Acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies are a group of illnesses that cause paralysis following an infection. We describe a case of one of these illnesses being caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). An 81-year-old female was admitted for an RSV infection. She went into respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation and treatment with ribavirin. When she was extubated, she had bilateral lower extremity weakness and absent reflexes. Her disease progressed rapidly to involve her diaphragm, and eventually, the family agreed to let the natural death process occur. Our case is the first reported case in which an acute immune-mediated polyneuropathy was caused from an RSV infection.
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Indolent systemic mastocytosis manifesting as protracted anaphylactic shock p. 311
Manidipam Chatterjee, Saikat Sengupta, Chandrashish Chakravarty, Suresh Ramasubban, Shilpa Bhartia, Sujoy Khan, Vikash Kumar Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_497_17  
Systemic mastocytosis is a rare disease due to abnormal proliferation of mast cells (MCs). A case of indolent systemic mastocytosis is presented here. After anesthetic induction for elective thyroid swelling with propofol and atracurium followed by endotracheal intubation, a 57-year-old female patient developed acute hypotension, sinus tachycardia, red rashes, increased airway pressure along with difficult ventilation, and desaturation. She developed multiorgan failure subsequently. MC tryptase level was persistently high. Bone marrow study revealed mastocytosis. She required antihistaminic, steroid, and organ support. With treatment, organ functions recovered gradually. Atracurium precipitated anaphylactic shock causing severe morbidity in this patient.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Malposition of central venous catheter due to radiation-induced venous stenosis: A report p. 314
Jay Prakash, Radhika Dhanpal, Natesh S Rao, Sarayu Ramamurthy
DOI:10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_25_18  
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