Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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Coverpage
September 2016
Volume 20 | Issue 9
Page Nos. 497-557

Online since Tuesday, September 13, 2016

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RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Comparison of low- and high-dose recombinant activated factor VII for postcardiac surgical bleeding p. 497
Aly Makram Habib
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190365  
Aim of the Study: A retrospective observational study to compare safety and efficacy of high and low doses of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in severe postcardiac surgical bleeding. Patients and Methods: From 2004 to 2014, all patients who received rFVIIa for bleeding after cardiac surgery were included and arranged in two groups; Group 1: Low dose (40–50 mcg/kg) (n = 98) and Group 2: High dose (90–120 mcg/kg) (n = 156). Results: There was no significant difference in demographic and surgical characteristics of both groups on admission to Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the reduction in chest tube bleeding in the first 6 h or the transfusion requirement in the 24 h after admission to CSICU. A total of 15 patients (5.9%) had thromboembolic adverse events. (Seven (7.1%) patients in Group 1 compared to 8 (5.1%) patients in Group 2, P = 0.58). There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality at 30 days (2% in Group 1 vs. 3.2% in Group 2, P = 0.6) and at hospital discharge between the two study groups (6.1% in Group 1 vs. 8.3% in Group 2, P = 0.5), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the need for re-exploration, days on mechanical ventilation, CSICU, or hospital stay. Conclusion: In this report, Low-dose rFVIIa showed equivalent efficacy and safety to high-dose rFVIIa. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury p. 504
Rita Galeiras, Mónica Mourelo, Sonia Pértega, Amanda Lista, Ma Elena Ferreiro, Sebastián Salvador, Antonio Montoto, Antonio Rodríguez
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190370  
Background: Patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) exhibit factors that, in other populations, have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in patients with acute traumatic SCI admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), as well as the development of secondary acute kidney injury and associated factors. Study Design and Setting: This was an observational, retrospective study. Patient Sample: All adult patients admitted to the ICU with acute traumatic SCI who presented rhabdomyolysis, diagnosed through creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels >500 IU/L. Outcome Measures: Incidence of rhabdomyolysis and subsequent renal dysfunction was calculated. Materials and Methods: Data about demographic variables, comorbidity, rhabdomyolysis risk factors, and variables involving SCI, severity scores, and laboratory parameters were obtained from clinical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify renal injury risk factors. Results: In 2006–2014, 200 patients with acute SCI were admitted to ICU. Of these, 103 had rhabdomyolysis (incidence = 51.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.3%–58.7%). The most typical American Spinal Injury Association classification was A (70.3%). The injury severity score was 30.3 ± 12.1 and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 5.6 ± 3.3 points. During their stay, 57 patients (55.3%; 95% CI: 45.2%–65.4%) presented renal dysfunction (creatinine ≥1.2 mg/dL). In the multivariate analysis, variables associated with renal dysfunction were creatinine at admission (odds ratio [OR] = 9.20; P = 0.006) and hemodynamic SOFA score the day following admission (OR = 1.33; P = 0.024). Creatinine was a better predictor of renal dysfunction than the peak CPK value during the rhabdomyolysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.91 vs. 0.63, respectively). Conclusions: Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent condition in patients with acute traumatic SCI admitted to the ICU, and renal dysfunction occurs in half of the cases. Creatinine values should be requested starting at the admission while neither the peak CPK values nor the hemodynamic SOFA scores could be used to properly discriminate between patients with and without renal dysfunction.
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Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokine bead array profile for prognostication of ventilated trauma patients p. 513
Subodh Kumar, Nidhi Bhardwaj, Surbhi Khurana, Amit Gupta, Kapil Dev Soni, Richa Aggrawal, Purva Mathur
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190375  
Aim of Study: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of mortality in trauma patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. The outcome of such patients may be dependent on local host immune response, which may be best reflected in studies using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The present study was conducted to ascertain the cytokine profile of BAL using the cytometric bead array (CBA) in a flow cytometer and to correlate the levels of Th-1/Th-2 cytokines in BAL with the clinical outcome of ventilated trauma patients. Patients and Methods: BAL was collected from the patients with suspected VAP. CBA was performed to assess the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8, IL-1 β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the BAL samples. After acquiring the BAL samples on the flow cytometer, the results were generated using FCAP Array™ software. The cytokine profile was correlated to clinical outcomes. Results: A total of forty patients were enrolled during the study period. Of these, 12 patients (30%) had confirmed VAP and 8 (20%) patients had a fatal outcome. The levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ correlated significantly with the development of VAP and elevated IL-6 in BAL was associated with a poor outcome. Conclusion: A proinflammatory response in the form of elevated IL-6 and IL-8 correlated poorly with the clinical outcome. Th-1 response was significantly reduced in patients with VAP. A proinflammatory response in the form of elevated IL-6 and IL-8 correlated poorly with the clinical outcome.
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Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome p. 518
Deme Swaroopa, Kakarla Bhaskar, T Mahathi, Shivakrishna Katkam, Y Satyanarayana Raju, Naval Chandra, Vijay Kumar Kutala
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190369  
Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

Acute kidney injury in pediatric intensive care unit: Incidence, risk factors, and outcome p. 526
Sheetal Gupta, Ghanshyam Singh Sengar, Praveen K Meti, Anil Lahoti, Mukesh Beniwal, Murlidhar Kumawat
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190368  
Objective: To determine incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study conducted in PICU of Department of Paediatrics, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, from October 2013 to May 2014. In this study, 536 patients of aged 29 days to 16 years were screened for AKI according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria. Their clinical and biochemical data were recorded and followed up to their discharge/death. Results: During the study period, 230 (42.9%) out of 536 patients developed AKI. Younger age (<5 years) and females (P ≤ 0.013) were more prone to develop AKI. Most common etiologies were septicemia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), gastroenteritis, and severe malaria (P ≤ 0.05). The maximal stage of AKI was stage “R” (49.1%), followed by “I” (29.5%) and “F” (21.3%). Major PICU-related risk factors were use of vasoactive drug (VD) and nephrotoxic drug (ND) and need of mechanical ventilation (MV) (P ≤ 0.05). Length of stay was significantly longer than non-AKI patients (P ≤ 0.05). Mortality in AKI (47.5%) was higher (P ≤ 0.05%) in comparison to non-AKI (25.56%). Conclusion: AKI is common in critically sick children, especially in younger age and in females with septicemia and MODS. Use of VD and ND and need of MV are common risk factors. AKI is associated with longer hospital stay and higher mortality. pRIFLE is better diagnostic criteria in early detection of AKI and reduction of their morbidity and mortality.
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Comparative evaluation of the role of single and multiple blood specimens in the outcome of blood cultures using BacT/ALERT 3D (automated) blood culture system in a tertiary care hospital p. 530
D Elantamilan, Valarie Wihiwot Lyngdoh, Annie B Khyriem, Jyotismita Rajbongshi, Ishani Bora, Surbala Thingujam Devi, Prithwis Bhattacharyya, Himesh Barman
Introduction: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. The mortality directly attributable to BSI has been estimated to be around 16% and 40% in general hospital population and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) population, respectively. The detection rate of these infections increases with the number of blood samples obtained for culture. The newer continuous monitoring automated blood culture systems with enhanced culture media show increased yield and sensitivity. Hence, we aimed at studying the role of single and multiple blood specimens from different sites at the same time in the outcome of automated blood culture system. Materials and Methods and Results: A total of 1054 blood culture sets were analyzed over 1 year, the sensitivity of one, two, and three samples in a set was found to be 85.67%, 96.59%, and 100%, respectively, which showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). Similar findings were seen in few more studies, however, among individual organisms in contrast to other studies, the isolation rates of Gram-positive bacteria were less than that of Gram-negative Bacilli with one (or first) sample in a blood culture set. In our study, despite using BacT/ALERT three-dimensional continuous culture monitoring system with FAN plus culture bottles, 15% of positive cultures would have been missed if only a single sample was collected in a blood culture set. Conclusion: The variables like the volume of blood and number of samples collected from different sites still play a major role in the outcome of these automated blood culture systems.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Top

Systematic review of statins in sepsis: There is no evidence of dose response p. 534
Morgan Quinn, Claire Moody, Bill Tunnicliffe, Zahid Khan, Mav Manji, Sandeep Gudibande, Nick Murphy, Tony Whitehouse, Catherine Snelson, Tonny Veenith
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190366  
Objectives: Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant costs to the healthcare organizations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether high or low-dose statin therapy improved mortality in patients with sepsis. Methods: The trials analyzed in this study were multicenter or single center randomized control studies using statins for sepsis in a hospital setting. The patients included were adults with suspected or confirmed infection. Interventions: This study found eight randomized controlled trials where participants were given either a statin or placebo daily for 14–28 days, the duration of their illness, or until their death or discharge, which ever occurred first. Primary and Secondary Outcomes Measured: This meta-analysis measured the effect of statin therapy on in hospital and 28 days mortality. Results: In unselected patients, there was no demonstrable difference in the 28 days mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.88 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70–1.12 and P = 0.16). There was also no significant difference between statin versus placebo for in-hospital mortality (RR 0.98 95% CI, 0.85–1.14 P = 0.36). When the studies where divided into low-dose and high-dose groups, there were no statistically significant differences for in-hospital mortality between low-dose statin versus placebo for (RR 0.81 CI 0.44–1.49 P = 0.27) or high-dose statin versus placebo (RR 0.99 95% CI 0.85–1.16, P = 0.28). There was no significant difference in adverse effects between the high- and low-dose groups. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we found that the use of statins did not significantly improve either in-hospital mortality or 28-day mortality in patients with sepsis. In the low-dose group, there were fewer quality multicenter studies; hence, conclusions based on the results of this subgroup are limited.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Diagnosing obstructive shock: Echocardiography is the third eye of a vigilant intensivist p. 542
Aditya Lyall, Supradip Ghosh, Kirtee Mishra
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190376  
Training in echocardiography is essential for an intensivist. We present a rapidly fatal case of obstructive shock where a vigilant intensivist could diagnose left atrial mass obstructing the mitral inflow as the etiology of shock.
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Point-of-care ultrasonography of the orbit for detection of retinal detachment in a patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome p. 545
Gentle Sunder Shrestha, Shayuja Rajbhandari, Shashwat Dhungel, Nutan Sharma, Nimesh Poudel, Dhiraj N Manandhar
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190364  
Retinal detachment is a rare, but well-known cause of visual impairment in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. With supportive care, patients usually improve, with complete recovery of vision. Bedside ultrasonography of the orbit can be helpful for early detection of retinal detachment in these patients. Here, we present a case of HELLP syndrome presenting with severe visual symptoms. Retinal detachment was detected with point-of-care ocular sonography, which was confirmed with ophthalmoscopic examination. The patient was reassured of the favorable prognosis. Early initiation of aggressive supportive care was followed by progressive improvement of vision, which correlated with sonographic evidence of resolution of detachment. Her vision recovered completely in 2 weeks.
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Lance–Adams syndrome: A special case of a mother p. 548
Gaurav Bhaskar Nigam, Sachin Suresh Babu, C Sudhir Peter, C Shobhna Peter
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190372  
Predicting the neurological outcome in survivors of cardiorespiratory arrest is difficult. A distinction has been made between acute and chronic posthypoxic myoclonus, called myoclonic status epilepticus and Lance–Adams syndrome (LAS), respectively, with the acute condition carrying a bad prognosis. Here, we report a case of a 37-year-old female who developed seizures after a successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The available literature on such cases is very rare and has generally mentioned a poor outcome. However, our patient was successfully managed and showed clinical features of LAS. Thus, making an early diagnosis and proper management of hypoxic brain insults is positively related to improving the patient's functional outcome.
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Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman p. 551
Pooja R Murthy, Rajesh Ucchil, Unmil Shah, Dipak Chaudhari
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190367  
Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Aseptic handling of ultrasound probe: An easy solution p. 554
Bharat Paliwal, Pradeep Bhatia, Nikhil Kothari, Sadik Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190373  
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Author's reply to the letter to editor, “Yakson touch as a part of early intervention in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A systematic narrative review - comment” p. 555
Asir John Samuel
DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190374  
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Acute intermittent porphyria: A critical diagnosis for favourable outcome p. 557

DOI:10.4103/0972-5229.190377  
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