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2009| October-December | Volume 13 | Issue 4
February 27, 2010
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Quality indicators for ICU: ISCCM guidelines for ICUs in India
B Ray, DP Samaddar, SK Todi, N Ramakrishnan, George John, Suresh Ramasubban
October-December 2009, 13(4):173-206
Role of noninvasive ventilation in weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An Indian experience
Shiva B.N Prasad, Dhruva Chaudhry, Rajan Khanna
October-December 2009, 13(4):207-212
Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV) are often needed in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. The rate of weaning failure is high and prolonged MV increases intubation associated complications.
To evaluate the role of Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in weaning patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from MV, after T piece trial failure.
A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted in a tertiary care centre. 30 patients of acute exacerbation of COPD with acute on chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, who were mechanically ventilated, were included in the study A T-piece weaning trial was attempted once the patients achieved satisfactory clinical and biochemical parameters. After T-piece failure, defined as pH < 7.35, PaCO
>50 mmHg, PaO
<50 mmHg, HR >100/min, RR >35, patients were randomized to receive either NIV or PSV.
Demography, severity of disease and clinical profiles were similar in both groups. No significant difference between the two groups in duration of MV (6.20 ± 5.20 days vs. 7.47 ± 6.38 days,
> 0.05), duration of weaning (35.17 ± 16.98 and 47.05 ± 20.98 hours,
> 0.05) or duration of ICU stay (8.47 ± 4.79 and 10.80 ± 5.28 days,
> 0.05) in Gp I and Gp II, respectively. Five patients developed VAP in the PSV group, where as only one patient had pneumonia in the NIV group. Lesser number of deaths in the NIV group at discharge from ICU (3 vs. 5 patients, respectively) and at 30 days (5 vs. 9 patients, respectively), it did not achieve statistical significance (
NIV is as useful as PSV in weaning and can be better in weaning failure especially in COPD for earlier weaning, decrease ICU stay, complications and mortality.
Ultrasonography: A novel approach to central venous cannulation
Ankit Agarwal, Dinesh K Singh, Anil P Singh
October-December 2009, 13(4):213-216
Portable ultrasound machines are highly valuable in ICUs, where a patient's condition might not permit shifting the patient to the USG department for imaging. Traditionally central lines are put blindly using anatomical landmarks, which often result in complications such as difficulty in access, misplaced lines, pneumothorax, bleeding from inadvertent arterial punctures, etc. Ultrasonography provides "real time" imaging, i.e., the needle can be visualized entering the vein.
We performed a study to compare USG guided central venous cannulation (CVC) and conventional anatomical landmark approach to CVC, in terms of ease of cannulation, time consumed, and associated complications.
Settings and Design:
The study was performed in a 16-bed open ICU. Eighty patients were randomly divided in two groups.
Materials and Methods:
The right internal jugular vein (IJV) was cannulated in all. In Group I, a portable ultrasound machine was used during cannulation. The vessels were visualized in the transverse section with the internal carotid artery (ICA) identified as a circular pulsatile structure, while the IJV as a lateral, oval nonpulsatile structure). The needle was inserted perpendicular to the skin under visualization on the US screen. Central venous line was then inserted by the Seldinger technique. In Group II, CVC was performed by the conventional landmark approach. The parameters studied included time for insertion, attempts required, and complications encountered.
The database of all parameters was analyzed using SPSS software version 10.5.
The mean time to successful insertion was 145 and 176.4 sec in groups I and II, respectively (
= 0.00). An average of 1.2 attempts per cannulation was required for group I, while 1.53 for group II (
= 0.03): 10% witnessed arterial puncture and 2.5% pneumothorax in group I and none in group II.
USG-guided CVC is thus easier, quicker, and safer than landmark approach.
Extreme metabolic alkalosis in intensive care
October-December 2009, 13(4):217-220
Metabolic alkalosis is a commonly seen imbalance in the intensive care unit (ICU). Extreme metabolic alkalemia, however, is less common. A pH greater than 7.65 may carry a high risk of mortality (up to 80%). We discuss the entity of life threatening metabolic alkalemia by means of two illustrative cases - both with a pH greater than 7.65 on presentation. The cause, modalities of managing and complications of this condition is discussed from the point of view of both the traditional method of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the mathematical model based on physiochemical model described by Stewart. Special mention to the pitfalls in managing patients of metabolic alkalosis with concomitant renal compromise is made.
Acute renal failure caused by pheniramine maleate induced rhabdomyolysis: An unusual case
G Paul, P Sood, BS Paul, S Puri
October-December 2009, 13(4):221-223
Antihistamines are easily available over-the-counter medications, which are frequently involved in overdoses. The usual course is accompanied by the anticholinergic effects of these agents. We report a case of a suicide attempt in a young male, where ingestion of antihistamine pheniramine maleate was complicated by nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and oliguric acute renal failure. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is a rarely reported but potentially serious complication among patients who present to the emergency after intentional overdoses making recognition and prompt intervention essential. We also describe the potential mechanism of muscle injury in antihistamine overdose.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Patient communication (SMS) in ICU
P. S. R. K Haranath
October-December 2009, 13(4):224-225
Anaphylactoid to polyurethane foam (yellow foam) among architects
October-December 2009, 13(4):224-224
Venous air embolism
October-December 2009, 13(4):225-225
Harsimran Singh, Anurag Tewari, Balvinder Kaur, Suchita Garg
October-December 2009, 13(4):225-225
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