Citation Information :
Pillai LV, Ambike D, Husainy S, Vaidya N, Kulkarni SD, Aigolikar S. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in relatives of severe trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2006; 10 (3):181-186.
Aim: To study the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of post-traumatic stress disorder in relatives of severe trauma patients admitted to the ICU. Materials and Methods: 177 relatives of trauma patients admitted to the ICU were studied to evaluate the negative psychological impact resulting from this admission by using the impact of event scale-revised [IES-R]. About 76 of these relatives could be followed up again with questionnaire after 2 years. Result: Of the 177 relatives, 85 (48%) were males and 92 (52%) females with no statistically significant difference in their scores. About 7 days after admission, 34-54% of the 177 relatives had moderate and 19-41% had severe symptoms suggestive of PTSD. For the 76 relatives who participated in both 2002 and 2004, symptoms suggestive of PTSD were moderate in 39-61% and severe in 12-39% initially. After 2 years the scores were moderate in 12-14% and severe in 4-5%. Maximum scores amongst the three subscales were for hyperarrousal symptom with mean scores of 2.1±1. In the group-which could be followed up after 2 years, initially 79% of the respondents had sum of IES-R scores ?26 suggesting severe symptoms, which declined to 14% after 2 years. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that 79% of the relatives of severe trauma patients develop PTSD symptoms following ICU admission. In most, the scores reduced with time but 14% continued to have severe scores at the end of 2 years suggesting the presence of persisting psychological disturbance in them.
Azoulay E, Pochard F, Kentish-Barnes N, Chevret S, Aboab J, Adrie C, et al. Risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms in family members of intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:987-94.
Jones C, Skirrow P, Griffiths RD, Humphris G, Ingleby S, Eddleston J, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms in relatives of patients following intensive care. Intensive Care Med 2004;30:456-60.
Jones C, Skirrow P, Griffiths RD, Humphris G, Dawson S, Eddleston J, et al. Predicting intensive care relatives at risk of post traumatic stress disorder. Br J Anaesthesia 2000;84:666-7.
Pochard F, Darmon M, Fassier T, Bollaert PE, Cheval C, Coloigner M, et al. French FAMIREA study group. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of intensive care unit patients before discharge or death. A prospective multicenter study. J Crit Care 2005;20:90-6.
Harvey AG, Bryant RA. The relationship between acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder: A prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998;66:507-12.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th), Washington, DC: 1994.
Weiss DS, Marmar CR. The impact of events scale-revised, in assessing psychological trauma and PTSD: A practitioners′ handbook. edited by Wilson JP, Keane TM. Guilford: New York; 1997.
Mason S, Wardrope J, Turpin G, Rowlands A. The psychological burden of injury: An 18 month prospective cohort study. Emerg Med J 2002;19:400-4.
Horowitz MJ, Wilner N, Alvarez W. Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomat Med 1979;41: 209-18.
Sundin EC, Horowitz MJ. Horowitz′s impact of event scale evaluation of 20 years of use. Psychosom Med 2003;65:870-6.
Yehuda R. Post-traumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med 2002;346:108-14.
Sessler CN. Caring for those who car the critical care family assistance program. Chest 2005;128:1101-3.
Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, Adrie C, Annane D, Bleichner G, et al. Half the family members of intensive care unit patients do not want to share in the decision-making process: A study in 78 French intensive care units. Crit Care Med Sept 2004;32:1832-8.
Mani RK, Amin P, Chawla R. Limiting life-prolonging interventions and providing palliative care towards the end-of-life in Indian intensive care units ISCCM′s position statement. Indian J Crit Care Med 2003;9:96-105.