Profile of micro-organisms in intensive care unit of a level-1 trauma centre: A retrospective study
Vinay Gulati, Shefali K. Sharma, Purvi Mathur, Chhavi Sahney
Drug resistance, Intensive Care Unit, mortality, micro-organisms, nosocomial infection, trauma
Citation Information :
Gulati V, Sharma SK, Mathur P, Sahney C. Profile of micro-organisms in intensive care unit of a level-1 trauma centre: A retrospective study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2013; 17 (2):87-91.
Background: Patients with trauma usually require highly specialized care in ICU and many times their recovery is complicated by infections. Aim of this study was to determine the profile of pathogens and their impact on outcome among these patients. Materials and Methods: The clinical records of 101 consecutive patients who were admitted for more than 48-hrs in ICU during Jun-Dec 2007 were analyzed. Results: Total of 953 samples from blood, urine, BAL or pus/collection were subjected to cultures. From 276 samples, 299 organisms were isolated. Among pathogens Candida Spp. [89 (29%)] were the most common, followed by Acinetobacter Spp. [69 (23%)], Pseudomonas Spp. [63 (21%)], Klebsiella Spp. [31 (10%)], coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus [16 (5%)], E coli [12 (4%)], Enterobacter Spp. [7 (2%)], S aureus [6 (2%)], Enterococcus Spp. [5 (2%)], Citrobacter Spp. [2 (0.6%)], S maltophila [1 (0.3%)] and Providentia Spp. [1 (0.3%)]. For gram negative pathogens drug-resistance rates were as follows: Fluoroquinolones, 76%; 3 rd generation cephalosporins, 74%; aminoglycosides, 66%; β-lactams/β-lactamase inhibitors combinations, 64%; and carbapenems, 50%. Among these 27% of pathogens were resistant to all 5 classes of drugs. 58% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin-resistant whereas 85% of coagulase negative Staphylococcus were methicillin resistant. The mortality was higher among patients in whom pathogens were isolated [Odd′s Ratio (OR) 0.185; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.049-0.640; P = 0.002]. Conclusions: Isolation of multi-drug resistant pathogens is common among trauma patients admitted in ICU and is associated with increased mortality and could impact on the consumption of hospital resources. The importance of high rate of fungal isolation needs to be studied among these patients.
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