Acute kidney injury, critically ill-children, pediatric intensive care unit
Citation Information :
Mondal N, Narayanan P, Prabha S, Mahadevan S, Biswal N, Srinivasan S. Clinical profile of acute kidney injury in a pediatric intensive care unit from Southern India: A prospective observational study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2013; 17 (4):207-213.
Background: Although the term acute renal failure was replaced by acute kidney injury (AKI) recently, there is a paucity of data on the incidence and profile of AKI in critically ill children from the developing world. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the incidence, etiology, short term outcome and predictors of fatality in critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with AKI, aged 1 month to 13 years. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, from June 2010 to March 2011, 215 children admitted to the PICU were screened for AKI, defined according to the AKI Network criteria. The patients with AKI were followed-up until discharge/death. Their clinical and biochemical data were recorded. Results: The incidence of AKI among 215 patients screened was 54 (25.1%). The common etiologies were infections, [34 (62.9%)], acute glomerulonephritis (7.6%), snake envenomation (5.7%), hemolytic uremic syndrome (3.8%) and congestive cardiac failures (3.8%). Among infections, pneumonia and septicemia constituted 26.5% each, meningoencephalitis accounted for 23.5%, and dengue, scrub typhus, tuberculosis and malaria constituted 9.3% of children with AKI. 27.8% of patients required dialysis. Overall mortality was 46.3%. On logistic regression analysis, requirement of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of fatality in AKI. Conclusions: Besides the high incidence of AKI in critically ill-children admitted to the PICU (25.1%), the condition was associated with adverse outcomes, including high mortality (46.3%) and need for dialysis (27.8%). Infections dominated the etiological profile. Requirement of mechanical ventilation predicted an adverse outcome in our patient population.
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