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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 4 ( August, 2013 ) > List of Articles


The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in post-extubation respiratory failure: An evaluation using meta-analytic techniques

John L. Moran

Keywords : Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure ventilation, non-invasive ventilation, post-extubation, reintubation, respiratory failure

Citation Information : Moran JL. The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in post-extubation respiratory failure: An evaluation using meta-analytic techniques. Indian J Crit Care Med 2013; 17 (4):253-261.

DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.118477

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 01-07-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).


Background: The use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in post-extubation respiratory failure is not well-established. Meta-analytic techniques were used to assess the effects of prophylactic application of NIPPV (prior to the development of respiratory failure) and therapeutic application of NIPPV (subsequent to the development of respiratory failure). Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1966 to May 2010 were identified using electronic databases. RCTs, which reported the use of NIPPV in post-extubation respiratory failure with defined assessable endpoints: reintubation, mortality and length of stay, were included. Results: Reintubation was the primary outcome, mortality and lengths of stay were the secondary outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for discrete outcomes and weighted mean differences (WMD) for continuous measures. There were 13 trials with 1420 patients; 9 prophylactic with 861 patients and 4 therapeutic with 559 patients. In the prophylactic group, NIPPV was associated with lower rates of reintubation: RR 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.98), P = 0.04. In the therapeutic group, NIPPV showed a null effect on reintubation: RR 0.79 (95% CI, 0.50-1.25), P = 0.31. The analysis on the secondary outcomes suggested significant reduction of hospital mortality with prophylactic application of NIPPV: RR 0.62 (95% CI 0.4-0.97), P = 0.03, with no effect on the other outcomes. Therapeutic application of NIPPV reduced intensive care unit length of stay: WMD −1.17 (95% CI −2.82 to −0.33), P = 0.006, but no effect on the other secondary outcomes. Conclusions: The results of this review suggested prophylactic NIPPV was beneficial with respect to reintubation and the therapeutic use of NIPPV showed a null effect.

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