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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 11 ( November, 2014 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Optic nerve sheath diameter as a marker for evaluation and prognostication of intracranial pressure in Indian patients: An observational study

Chetan Shirodkar, Dnyaneshwar Mutkule, Yogesh Harde, Pradeep Venkategowda, M. Mahesh

Keywords : Computed tomography, intensive care unit, magnetic resonance imaging, mannitol, optic nerve sheath diameter, raised intracranial pressure, ultrasonography

Citation Information : Shirodkar C, Mutkule D, Harde Y, Venkategowda P, Mahesh M. Optic nerve sheath diameter as a marker for evaluation and prognostication of intracranial pressure in Indian patients: An observational study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (11):728-734.

DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.144015

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 01-11-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background and Aims: The aim was to evaluate efficacy of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound as a noninvasive method for detecting raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in intensive care unit, to compare with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of raised ICP and to prognosticate ONSD value with treatment. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study on 101 adults by including 41 healthy individuals in group A as control and 60 patients in group B admitted with fever, headache, vomiting, and altered sensorium. We examined them in supine position using 10 MHz linear array probe on closed eyelid. ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the globe in each eye. A mean binocular ONSD > 4.6 mm in female and 4.8 mm in male was considered abnormal. Midline shift, edema, effacement or ONSD > 5.0 mm on T2 MRI suggestive of elevated ICP was used to evaluate ONSD accuracy. Results: Group A mean ONSD was 4.6 mm in females and 4.8 mm in males. Group B mean ONSD for 17 females was 5.103 ± 0.6221 mm (P = 0.002) and for 43 males 5.081 ± 0.5799 mm (P = 0.032). Radiological sign of raised ICP was confirmed in 35 patients (females = 11 and males = 24) with high ONSD value. Sensitivity of detecting raised ICP by ONSD was 84.6% in females and 75% in males while specificity was 100% in both genders. Out of 25 patients without radiological signs of raised ICP 10 patients showed high ONSD (females = 4.735 mm and males = 4.907 mm). ONSD was well prognosticated with treatment modalities. Conclusion: Bedside ocular ultrasonography for measuring ONSD can be used an early test for diagnosing raised ICP as it is a noninvasive, cost effective bedside test, which can be repeated for re-evaluation.


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