Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes emm type 58 in a high dependency unit of a level-1 trauma center of India
Deepak Agrawal, Gunjan Gupta, Parul Punia, Vibhor Tak, Nibu Varghese John, Manesh C. Misra
Beta-hemolytic Streptococci , group A Streptococcus, outbreak, Streptococcus pyrogenic exotoxins emm types, trauma patients
Citation Information :
Agrawal D, Gupta G, Punia P, Tak V, John NV, Misra MC. Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes emm type 58 in a high dependency unit of a level-1 trauma center of India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (2):77-82.
Background and Aims: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can cause illnesses ranging from self-limited to severe, life-threatening, invasive infections. The objective of the following study was to investigate a suspected Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak in a high dependency unit (HDU) of our trauma center. Materials and Methods: All the isolates of beta hemolytic Streptococci were identified by standard microbiological methods, Vitek 2 system and latex agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Exotoxin genes, including speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, ssa, speG, speH, speJ, speL, speM and speI were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The emm types of isolates of S. pyogenes were determined by sequencing the variable 5′ end of emm gene after amplification by PCR. Results: In a 28 bedded poly-trauma ward with a four bedded HDU three out of four patients developed S. pyogenes emm type 58 infection. The strain was macrolide and tetracycline resistant and produced the Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins speB, speC, speG, speF and smeZ. Surveillance sampling was done for investigation from patients, health-care workers and environmental samples. Conclusion: An outbreak of GAS infections was established caused by the uncommonly reported emm type 58. The outbreak was controlled by prompt treatment, intensive surveillance, feedback and training.
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