Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with poor outcome. We conducted the present study to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in the PICU. Materials and Methods: We collected data retrospectively from case records of children admitted to the PICU during one year. We defined and classified AKI according to modified pRIFLE criteria. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine risk factors of AKI and association of AKI with mortality and morbidity. Results: Of the 252 children included in the study, 103 (40.9%) children developed AKI. Of these 103 patients with AKI, 39 (37.9%) patients reached pRIFLE max of Risk, 37 (35.9%) patients reached Injury, and 27 (26.2%) had Failure. Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM III) score at admission was higher in patients with AKI than in controls (P < 0.001).
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