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VOLUME 18 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2014 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Propofol versus flunitrazepam for inducing and maintaining sleep in postoperative ICU patients

Cornelius Engelmann, Jan Wallenborn, Derk Olthoff, Udo X. Kaisers, Henrik Rüffert

Keywords : Bispectral index, intensive care unit, propofol, sleep

Citation Information : Engelmann C, Wallenborn J, Olthoff D, Kaisers UX, Rüffert H. Propofol versus flunitrazepam for inducing and maintaining sleep in postoperative ICU patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (4):212-219.

DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.130572

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 00-04-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Context: Sleep deprivation is a common problem on intensive care units (ICUs) influencing not only cognition, but also cellular functions. An appropriate sleep-wake cycle should therefore be maintained to improve patients′ outcome. Multiple disruptive factors on ICUs necessitate the administration of sedating and sleep-promoting drugs for patients who are not analgo-sedated. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate sleep quantity and sleep quality in ICU patients receiving either propofol or flunitrazepam. Settings and Design: Monocentric, randomized, double-blinded trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 ICU patients were enrolled in the study (flunitrazepam n = 32, propofol n = 34). Propofol was injected continuously (2 mg/kg/h), flunitrazepam as a bolus dose (0.015 mg/kg). Differences between groups were evaluated using a standardized sleep diary and the bispectral index (BIS). Statistical Analysis Used: Group comparisons were performed by Mann-Whitney U-Test. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Sleep quality and the frequency of awakenings were significantly better in the propofol group (Pg). In the same group lower BIS values were recorded (median BIS propofol 74.05, flunitrazepam 78.7 [P = 0.016]). BIS values had to be classified predominantly to slow-wave sleep under propofol and light sleep after administration of flunitrazepam. Sleep quality improved in the Pg with decreasing frequency of awakenings and in the flunitrazepam group with increasing sleep duration. Conclusions: Continuous low-dose injection of propofol for promoting and maintaining night sleep in ICU patients who are not analgo-sedated was superior to flunitrazepam regarding sleep quality and sleep structure.


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