Background: Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in catheterized patients. Fungal UTI has become an important nosocomial problem over the past decade. The microbiology of candiduria is rapidly evolving and new trends are being reported.
Aims: To study the microbiological trends and antifungal resistance profile of Candida in urine of catheterized chronic liver disease (CLD) patients at a super specialty hepatobiliary tertiary-care center.
Materials and Methods: urine samples were collected by sterile technique, processed by semi-quantitative method as per the standard protocols. Direct microscopic examination of urine sample was also done to look for the presence of pus cells, red blood cells, casts, crystals or any bacterial or fungal element.
Result: A total of 337 yeast isolates were obtained from catheterized patients, non-albicans Candida spp. emerged as the predominant pathogen and was responsible for 67.06% of nosocomial fungal UTI. Candida tropicalis accounted for 34.71% of the cases, whereas Candida albicans grew in 32.93%, Candida glabrata 16.32%, rare Candida spp. Nearly 11.5% (Candida hemolunii to be confirmed by molecular methods). Antifungal sensitivity varied non-albicans species except C. tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis were more often resistant to antifungal drugs.
Conclusion: Nosocomial Candida UTIs in CLD patients is common, due to the cumulative pressure of contributing factors such as urinary instrumentation and prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Non-albicans Candida were found to outnumber C. albicans in catherized CLD patients. Risk of strain persistence is also higher with non-albicans Candida. Thus, species identification and susceptibility testing is a must for appropriate management of such patients.
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