The recent standardization and validation of definitions of pediatric acute kidney injury (pAKI) has ignited new dimensions of pAKI epidemiology and its risk factors. pAKI causes increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill-children. Among the hospitalized patients incidence of pAKI ranges from 1% to 31%, while mortality ranges from 28% to 82%, presenting a broad range due to lack of uniformly acceptable pAKI definition. In addition, cumulative data regarding the progression of pAKI to chronic kidney disease in children is rising. Despite these alarming figures, treatment modalities have failed to deliver significantly. In this review, we will summarize the latest developments of pAKI and highlight important aspects of pAKI management.
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