Citation Information :
Raffee LA, Samrah SM, Al Yousef HN, Abeeleh MA, Alawneh KZ. Incidence, Characteristics, and Survival Trend of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following In-Hospital Compared to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Northern Jordan. Indian J Crit Care Med 2017; 21 (7):436-441.
Background: Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the cornerstone intervention to optimize the survival rates. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to determine and compare the incidence, characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of CPR in a referral university hospital following in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Northern Jordan. Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational study of adults referred to King Abdulla University Hospital who received CPR between January 2014 and January 2015. Data were obtained from the medical recorded of included patients. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with survival to discharge. Results: A total of 79 OHCA and 257 IHCA were included in the study. The overall survival rate for OHCA was 2.97%. The survival rate increased to 4.3% if CPR performed before arriving the hospital. Only 22% of the OHCA cases had CPR performed mainly due to lack of knowledge and skills of bystanders. The survival rate for IHCA was 14.88%. In this study, patient survival was not associated with age, smoking habit, diabetes mellitus, cancer status, hypertension, or heart failure. Conclusion: This is the first study to describe the incidence and outcome of adult IHCA and OHCA in Jordan. The findings will serve as a benchmark to evaluate future impact of changes in service delivery, organization, and treatment for OHCA and IHCA. Furthermore, findings will urge the regulatory bodies to establish well-structured Emergency Medical Service system. Educational programs at the national level to improve public awareness of CPR intervention are crucial to improve survival rates.
Aaboe ML, Qvortrup M, Sondergaard HM, Moller DS. Characteristics and outcome after in-hospital cardiac arrest: 2 years systematic registration in the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry at one single hospital. Resuscitation 2015;96:45.
Harmon KG, Asif IM, Maleszewski JJ, Owens DS, Prutkin JM, Salerno JC, et al. Incidence, cause, and comparative frequency of sudden cardiac death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes: A decade in review. Circulation 2016;133:e447.
Kolte D, Khera S, Aronow WS, Palaniswamy C, Mujib M, Ahn C, et al. Regional variation in the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States. Circulation 2015;131:1415-25.
Merchant RM, Yang L, Becker LB, Berg RA, Nadkarni V, Nichol G, et al. Incidence of treated cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients in the United States. Crit Care Med 2011;39:2401-6.
Ehlenbach WJ, Barnato AE, Curtis JR, Kreuter W, Koepsell TD, Deyo RA, et al. Epidemiologic study of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly. N Engl J Med 2009;361:22-31.
Becker LB, Smith DW, Rhodes KV. Incidence of cardiac arrest: A neglected factor in evaluating survival rates. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22:86-91.
Meyer L, Stubbs B, Fahrenbruch C, Maeda C, Harmon K, Eisenberg M, et al. Incidence, causes, and survival trends from cardiovascular-related sudden cardiac arrest in children and young adults 0 to 35 years of age: A 30-year review. Circulation 2012;126:1363-72.
Kitamura T, Kiyohara K, Sakai T, Iwami T, Nishiyama C, Kajino K, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of non-cardiac origin in Osaka: A population-based study. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006462.
Nolan JP, Soar J, Smith GB, Gwinnutt C, Parrott F, Power S, et al. Incidence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Resuscitation 2014;85:987-92.
Rajan S, Wissenberg M, Folke F, Hansen CM, Lippert FK, Weeke P, et al. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents: Incidences, outcomes, and household socioeconomic status. Resuscitation 2015;88:12-9.
Nehme Z, Andrew E, Bernard S, Patsamanis H, Cameron P, Bray JE, et al. Impact of a public awareness campaign on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and mortality rates. Eur Heart J 2017;38:1666-73.
Berdowski J, de Beus MF, Blom M, Bardai A, Bots ML, Doevendans PA, et al. Exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the general population: Incidence and prognosis. Eur Heart J 2013;34:3616-23.
Haque A, Rizvi A, Bano S. Outcome of in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest from a single center in Pakistan. Indian J Pediatr 2011;78:1356-60.
Krittayaphong R, Saengsung P, Chawaruechai T, Yindeengam A, Udompunturak S. Factors predicting outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a developing country: The Siriraj cardiopulmonary resuscitation registry. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92:618-23.
Lundy DJ, Ross SE, Schorr C, Jones AE, Trzeciak S. Outcomes of trauma victims with cardiac arrest who survive to Intensive Care Unit admission. J Trauma 2011;71:E12-6.
Pembeci K, Yildirim A, Turan E, Buget M, Camci E, Senturk M, et al. Assessment of the success of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts performed in a Turkish university hospital. Resuscitation 2006;68:221-9.
Rosamond WD, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Cooper LS, Conwill DE, Clegg L, et al. Trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and in mortality due to coronary heart disease, 1987 to 1994. N Engl J Med 1998;339:861-7.
Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M, Travers A, Christenson J, McBurnie MA, et al. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2004;351:637-46.
Rajan S, Wissenberg M, Folke F, Hansen SM, Gerds TA, Kragholm K, et al. Association of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival according to ambulance response times after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 2016;134:2095-104.
Marijon E, Bougouin W, Celermajer DS, Perier MC, Benameur N, Lamhaut L, et al. Major regional disparities in outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest during sports. Eur Heart J 2013;34:3632-40.