Spectrum of diseases/conditions exhibiting hemostatic abnormalities in patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital
Girish Rajadhyaksha, Ameena Meah
Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, bleeding, intensive care unit, transfusion, tropical diseases
Citation Information :
Rajadhyaksha G, Meah A. Spectrum of diseases/conditions exhibiting hemostatic abnormalities in patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Crit Care Med 2018; 22 (10):711-717.
Background and Aims: In a medical intensive care unit (MICU), many patients develop hemostatic abnormalities, ranging from abnormal clotting tests to frank bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess the etiology of diseases that present with bleeding, its common bleeding manifestations, incidence, MICU stay, mortality, and transfusion requirements in an Indian setup and also to assess if the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score can be used as a predictor for blood transfusion requirements.
Materials and Methods: Between July 2013 and August 2014, 200 patients with clinically significant bleeding admitted in the MICU were prospectively evaluated. Detailed history, examination, laboratory investigations, APACHE II score, and requirement of blood products were also noted. The endpoints were discharge or death.
Results: The spectrum of diseases that presented with bleeding was 47 patients with malaria (23.5%) followed by 36 acute undifferentiated febrile illness (18.0%), 33 dengue (16.5%), 30 leptospirosis (15.0%), 31 acute fulminant hepatitis (15.5%), 14 sepsis (7.0%), and the rest nine miscellaneous causes. The most common bleeding manifestation observed was hematuria in 62/200 (31%). Among the patients studied, 126 expired (63%) and 74 survived (37%). Of the 200 patients, 48/200 (24%) received packed cells, 78/200 (39%) fresh frozen plasma, and 82/200 (41%) platelets.
Conclusions: Tropical diseases formed the majority of admissions with bleeding manifestations. Thrombocytopenia is an important marker to predict mortality and also has a significant association with MICU stay. APACHE II score was found to be a good predictor of blood transfusion requirements.
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