Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a rare, debilitating disease that deserves more widespread concern among the medical fraternities. The objective of this review is to outline the etiology, pathology findings, and management practices of SPG. About 18%–40% mortality rate was reported, and survivors have high frequency of multiple limb amputations. SPG is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The main pathogenesis theory, to date, is microthrombosis associated with disturbed procoagulant–anticoagulant balance. The treatment of SPG is largely anecdotal and theoretically involves heparin-based anticoagulation and substitution of natural anticoagulants. Early recognition, prompt management of DIC, and underlying conditions may halt the progression of the disease. The multicenter randomized controlled trial should be set up to formulate the proper treatment guidelines.
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