Citation Information :
Bindra A, Khandelwal A, Hazarika A, Kedia S, Rath GP. Non- Neurological Complications after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Observational Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2018; 22 (9):632-638.
Introduction and Aims: Recognizing and treating nonneurological complications occurring in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients during intensive care unit (ICU) stay are challenging. The aim is to estimate various nonneurological complications in TBI patients. The secondary aim is to see the effect of these complications on ICU stay, disability, and mortality.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study at the neuro-ICU of a Level-I trauma center. A total of 154 TBI patients were enrolled. The period of the study was from admission to discharge from ICU or demise. Inclusion criteria were patients aged >16 years and patients with severe TBI (Glasgow coma score [GCS] ≤8). Nonneurological complications were frequent in TBI patients.
Results: We observed respiratory complications to be the most common (61%). Other complications, in the decreasing order, included dyselectrolytemia (46.1%), cardiovascular (34.4%), coagulopathy (33.1%), sepsis (26%), abdominal complications (17.5%), and acute kidney injury (AKI, 3.9%). The presence of systemic complications except AKI was found to be significantly associated with increased ICU stay. Most of the patients of AKI died early in ICU. Respiratory dysfunction was found to be independently associated with 3.05 times higher risk of worsening clinical condition (disability) (P < 0.018). The presence of cardiovascular complications during ICU stay (4.2 times, P < 0.005), AKI (24.7 times, P < 0.02), coagulopathy (3.13 times, P < 0.047), and GCS <6 (4.2 times, P < 0.006) of TBI was independently associated with significantly increased risk of ICU mortality.
Conclusion: TBI patients tend to have poor outcome due to concomitant nonneurological complications. These have significant bearing on ICU stay, disability, and mortality.
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