Background and aim: Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy varies from benign to severe with fetomaternal complications. We aimed to evaluate thrombocytopenia in pregnant Indian females in third trimester mainly during labor and delivery.
Materials and methods: It was a prospective observational study done in a tertiary care teaching public hospital over 1 year. Consecutive 150 pregnant patients admitted to labor ward with thrombocytopenia were analyzed for etiology of thrombocytopenia, severity, mode of delivery, type of anesthesia, and fetomaternal complications. SPSS version 17 was used for the analysis.
Results: Most common cause of thrombocytopenia was preeclampsia 50 (33.3%) and preeclampsia with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count syndrome (HELLP syndrome) 31 (20.7%) together followed by gestational 42 (28%). Infectious causes such as malaria, dengue, and leptospirosis were found in 19 patients (12.7%). Moderate to severe thrombocytopenia was seen in preeclampsia, preeclampsia with HELLP syndrome, and infectious etiology. Eleven patients (7.3%) developed antepartum hemorrhage (APH), 24 (16%) postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), 12 (8%) required ICU admission, and 3 (2%) mortalities were noted. Fifteen neonates (10%) needed ICU admission. Complications were observed in preeclampsia with HELLP syndrome (82%) and infectious causes (18%) and none in gestational. Sixty-eight patients underwent lower segment cesarean section (LSCS), among them 41 (27.3%) were given spinal anesthesia (SA) and none of them developed any neurological complications.
Conclusion: Study widened the spectrum of causes for thrombocytopenia in pregnant patients. Preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome and vector-borne infections such as malaria, dengue, and leptospirosis were found to be very important causes of moderate to severe thrombocytopenia and were associated with complications. Spinal anesthesia is safe in parturients with mild thrombocytopenia. Awareness and vigilance about thrombocytopenia is vital to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.
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