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VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 10 ( October, 2020 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Study of Antimicrobial Utilization and Cost of Therapy in Medicine Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Sheikh Nurul Iqbal

Keywords : Antibiotics, Cost analysis, Drug utilization study, Multidrug resistant

Citation Information : Iqbal SN. Study of Antimicrobial Utilization and Cost of Therapy in Medicine Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (10):938-942.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23552

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-10-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: High utilization of antimicrobial agent (AMA) and inappropriate usage in an intensive care unit (ICU) intensifies resistant organism, morbidity, mortality, and treatment cost. Prescription audit and active feedback are a proven method to check the irrational prescription. To analyze and compare the utilization of drugs, World Health Organization (WHO) proposed daily defined dose (DDD)/100 patient days and days of therapy (DOT)/100 patient days to measure utilization of AMAs. Data of AMAs utilization are required for planning an antibiotic policy and for follow-up of intervention strategies. Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for 1 year from July 2018 to June 2019 and the data obtained from ICU of a tertiary care hospital. The demographic data, the disease data, and the utilization of different classes of AMAs [WHO–Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification] as well as their cost were recorded. Total number of patient days, DDD, DDD/100 patient days, and DOT/100 patient days were calculated as proposed by WHO. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS version 25.0. The descriptive analysis was performed using summary statistics median [interquartile range (IQR)]. Results: A total 939 were included, out of them 332 (35.4%) were female. The median age of the total patients was 58 (45–70). The median length of stay in ICU was 3 days. Mortality rate during our study period was 38.6%. The highly utilized AMAs in our study was ceftriaxone (36.95 DDD/100 patient days) followed by piperacillin/tazobactam (31.57), meropenem (26.4), doxycycline (21.53), and polymyxin B (21.38). The association between APACHE II and SOFA score with use of restricted antibiotics found to be statistical significant (p value 0.018 and 0.000, respectively). The cost of antibiotics per patients and patient days were $449.97 and $93.77, respectively, while median value of total cost was $2,343.26. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone was the highest utilized AMA. The risk of receiving restricted antibiotics intensified with increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance bacteria and associated comorbidities. High treatment cost is responsible for higher utilization of restricted antibiotics in ICU.


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