Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2020 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparative Efficacy of Hand Disinfection Potential of Hand Sanitizer and Liquid Soap among Dental Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Mahesh R Khairnar, G Anitha, Tanushri M Dalvi, Shrivardhan Kalghatgi, Uma V Datar, Umesh Wadgave, Shrushti Shah, Lucky Preet

Keywords : Antibacterial agents, Hand hygiene, Hand sanitizers, Randomized controlled trial

Citation Information : Khairnar MR, Anitha G, Dalvi TM, Kalghatgi S, Datar UV, Wadgave U, Shah S, Preet L. Comparative Efficacy of Hand Disinfection Potential of Hand Sanitizer and Liquid Soap among Dental Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (5):336-339.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23420

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-05-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background: Hands are the most common medium for initiation and spread of infection in clinics. Hand hygiene is the simplest and most economic method for reducing the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of hand sanitizer, liquid soap, and their combination for reducing the microbial colonies on hands. Materials and methods: The study was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial executed in a dental college on 90 participants, which were randomly assigned into three intervention groups of 30 each. The participants were instructed to contaminate their hands followed by a hand hygiene protocol for the liquid hand-wash group, the alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) group, and the combination group according to WHO guidelines. The swabs were collected pre- and post-intervention and mean colony-forming units were determined for each group. Results: Median percentage reduction was highest for the combination group (100%), followed by the ABHS group (94.29%) and lowest for the liquid soap (92.31%). This difference in the amount of colony-forming units (CFU) among all the groups was nonsignificant (p = 0.114). Conclusion: The results of the study show that there was no significant difference in hand disinfection potential among hand sanitizer, liquid soap, or their combination. All the three interventions were equally effective with the reduction of total bacterial contamination from participants’ hands.


PDF Share
  1. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care. 20009; Geneva: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44102/9789241597906_eng.pdf;jsessionid=A19C0BE8A2791AD628FD422380111C18?sequence=1.
  2. Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Storr J, Donaldson L. ‘Clean care is Safer care’: the global patient safety challenge 2005–2006. Int J Infect Dis 2006;10(6):419–424. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2006.06.001.
  3. Foca M, Jakob K, Whittier S, Della Latta P, Factor S, Rubenstein D, et al. Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. N Engl J Med 2000;343(10):695–700. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200009073431004.
  4. Sartor C, Jacomo V, Duvivier C, Tissot-Dupont H, Sambuc R, Drancourt M. Nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections associated with extrinsic contamination of a liquid non-medicated soap. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21(3):196–199. DOI: 10.1086/501743.
  5. Boyce JM, Potter-Bynoe G, Opal SM, Dziobek L, Medeiros AA. A common-source outbreak of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. J Infect Dis 1990;161(3):493–499. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/161.3.493.
  6. El Shafie SS, Alishaq M, Leni Garcia M. Investigation of an outbreak of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in trauma intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 2004;56(2):101–105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2003. 09.024.
  7. Zawacki A, O'Rourke E, Potter-Bynoe G, Macone A, Harbarth S, Goldmann D. An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and bloodstream infection associated with intermittent otitis externa in a healthcare worker. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25(12): 1083–1089. DOI: 10.1086/502348.
  8. Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 2008;98(8):1372–1381. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610.
  9. Fluent MT. Hand hygiene in the dental setting: reducing the risk of infection. Compend Cont Educ Dent 2013;34(8):624–627.
  10. Babeluk R, Jutz S, Mertlitz S, Matiasek J, Klaus C. Hand hygiene – a evaluation of three disinfectant hand sanitizers in a community setting. PLoS One 2014;9(11):e111969. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111969.
  11. Tambekar DH, Shirsat SD, Suradkar SB, Rajankar PN, Banginwar YS. Prevention of transmission of infectious disease: studies on hand hygiene in health-care among students. Continental J Biomed Sci 2007;1:6–10.
  12. Gold NA, Avva U. Alcohol Sanitizer. Treasure Island (FL): Starpearls Publishing; 2019.
  13. Kampf G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004;17(4):863–893. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.17.4.863-893.2004.
  14. Marchetti MG, Kampf G, Finzi G, Salvatorelli G. Evaluation of the bactericidal effect of five products for surgical hand disinfection according to prEN 12054 and prEN 12791. J Hosp Infect 2003;54(1): 63–67. DOI: 10.1016/S0195-6701(03)00039-2.
  15. Winnefeld M, Richard MA, Drancourt M, Grob JJ. Skin tolerance and effectiveness of two hand decontamination procedures in everyday hospital use. Br J Dermatol 2000;143(3):546–550. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2000.03708.x.
  16. Larson EL, Aiello AE, Bastyr J, Lyle C, Stahl J, Cronquist A, et al. Assessment of two hand hygiene regimens for intensive care unit personnel. Crit Care Med 2001;29(5):944–951. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-200105000-00007.
  17. Larson EL, Cimiotti J, Haas J, Parides M, Nesin M, Della-Latta P, et al. Effect of antiseptic handwashing vs alcohol sanitizer on health care-associated infections in neonatal intensive care units. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159(4):377–383. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.159.4.377.
  18. Zaragoza M, Sallés M, Gomez J, Bayas JM, Trilla A. Handwashing with soap or alcoholic solutions? A randomized clinical trial of its effectiveness. Am J Infect Control 1999;27(3):258–261. DOI: 10.1053/ic.1999.v27.a97622.
  19. Cardoso CL, Pereira HH, Zequim JC, Guilhermetti M. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing agents for removing Acinetobacter baumannii strain from contaminated hands. Am J Infect Control 1999;27(4):327–331. DOI: 10.1016/S0196-6553(99)70052-0.
  20. Guilhermetti M, Hernandes SE, Fukushigue Y, Garcia LB, Cardoso CL. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing agents for removing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from contaminated hands. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22:105–108. DOI: 10.1086/501872.
  21. Girou E, Loyeau S, Legrand P, Oppein F, Brun-Buisson C. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial. BMJ 2002;325(7360):362. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.325.7360.362.
  22. Syverson EA. Reduction of hand bacteria: a comparative study among common antiseptics. Saint Martin's University Biology Journal 2006;1:75–85.
  23. Pickering AJ, Boehm AB, Mwanjali M, Davis J. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010;82(2):270–278. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0220.
  24. Jain VM, Karibasappa GN, Dodamani AS, Prashanth VK, Mali GV. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: an in vitro study. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2016;13(5):424–431. DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.192283.
  25. Ali Y, Dolan MJ, Fendler EJ, Larson EL. Alcohols. In: Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. 5th ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2001.
  26. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA hand hygiene task force. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23(12 suppl):S3–S40. DOI: 10.1086/503164.
  27. Liu P, Yuen Y, Hsiao HM, Jaykus LA, Moe C. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010;76(2):394–399. DOI: 10.1128/AEM. 01729-09.
  28. Suchomel M, Rotter M, Weinlich M, Kundi M. Glycerol significantly decreases the three hour efficacy of alcohol-based surgical hand rubs. J Hosp Infect 2013;83(4):284–287. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.11.030.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.