Citation Information :
Gupta S, Bansal A, Biswal M, Zaman K, Williams V, Kumar A. Clinical Profile and Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission in Pediatric Scrub Typhus: A Retrospective Observational Study from North India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (6):445-450.
Introduction: Children with scrub typhus may present with one or more organ failures. Identifying the predictors of severe disease and need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission would help clinicians during outbreak seasons. Materials and methods: This observational study included 160 children admitted to the emergency department (ED) with scrub typhus confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between January 2013 and December 2015. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and predictors for PICU admission were identified. Results: There was a seasonal trend with peak presentation in post-monsoon months between August and October. Mean (SD) age at presentation was 6.8 (3.2) years. Fever was present in all with a median (IQR) duration of 9 (6–11) days. Respiratory distress (42%), altered sensorium (24%), hepatomegaly (93%), splenomegaly (57%), and lymphadenopathy (54%) were other features. Rash and eschar were noted in 24% each. Thrombocytopenia (83%), hypoalbuminemia (63%), and hyponatremia (62%) were common laboratory abnormalities. Meningoencephalitic presentation was noted in 29%; acute kidney injury (AKI) (16%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (11%), and myocarditis (3%) were other organ dysfunctions. Sixty-six (41%) children required PICU admission. Intensive care needs include invasive ventilation (n = 27, 17%), vasoactive drugs therapy for hemodynamic support (n = 43, 27%), osmotherapy to treat raised intracranial pressure (n = 27, 17%), and renal replacement therapy (n = 3, 2%). Mortality was 8.8%. On multivariable analysis, lymphadenopathy, respiratory distress, shock, elevated lactate, and meningoencephalitis predicted the requirement of PICU admission. Conclusion: Scrub typhus presents with organ dysfunction during post-monsoon months. We identified predictors of intensive care in children with scrub typhus admitted to ED. Clinical significance: Our results would help clinicians identify severe cases and prioritize resources.
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