Citation Information :
Choudhry D, Mohamed Z, Chakrabortty N, Gupta KV. Dilatational Percutaneous vs Surgical TracheoStomy in IntEnsive Care UniT: A Practice Pattern Observational Multicenter Study (DISSECT). Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (7):514-526.
Introduction: Tracheostomy is among the common procedures performed in the intensive care unit (ICU), with percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) being the preferred technique. We sought to understand the current practice of tracheostomy in Indian ICUs. Materials and methods: A pan-India multicenter prospective observational study, endorsed and peer-reviewed by the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM), on various aspects of tracheostomy performed in critically ill patients was conducted between September 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019. The SPSS software was used for the statistical analysis. Cross tables were generated and the chi-square test was used for testing of association. The p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 67 ICUs that participated, 88.1% were from private sector hospitals. A total of 923 tracheostomies were performed during the study period; out of which, 666 were PDT and 257 were surgical tracheostomy (ST). Coagulopathic patients received more platelet transfusion [p = 0.037 with platelet count (PC) < 50 × 109, p = 0.021 with PC 50–100 × 109] and fresh frozen plasma transfusion in the ST group (p = 0.0001). The performance of PDT vs ST by day 7 of admission was 28.4% vs 21% (p = 0.023). The single dilator technique (60.4%) was the preferred technique for PDT followed by the Grigg\'s forceps and then the multiple dilator technique. Fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and ultrasonography (USG) were used in 29.3% and 16.8%, respectively, for guidance during tracheostomy. Most of the PDTs were performed by a trained intensivist (74.2%), whereas ST was mostly done by an ENT surgeon (56.8%). Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy resulted in less hemorrhagic (2.6% vs 7%, p = 0.002) and desaturation complications (2.3% vs 6.6%, p = 0.001) as compared to ST. The duration of procedure was shorter in the PDT group (average shortening by 9.2 minutes) and the ventilator-free days (VFD) were higher in the PDT group. The cost was less in PDT by approximately Rs. 13,104. Conclusion: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, especially the single dilator technique, is preferred by clinicians in Indian ICUs. The incidence of minor complications like hemorrhagic episodes is lower with PDT. Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy was found to be cheaper on cost per patient basis as compared to ST (with or without complications).
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