Citation Information :
Rao CC, Himaaldev GJ. STEMI in Young Befogged by Aluminum Phosphide Toxicity—Role of ECMO as Salvage Therapy and Trimetazidine and Magnesium to Suppress Arrhythmias. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (8):727-730.
Introduction: Aluminum phosphide poisoning (ALP) has a high-mortality rate despite intensive care management, primarily because it causes severe myocardial depression. This case report highlights the subset of ALP patients presenting as ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with profound myocardial dysfunction and multiorgan failure and successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), trimetazidine, and magnesium. Case description: A 25-year-old man without any comorbidities was brought to emergency department with dyspnea and hypotension. His electrocardiograph (ECG) revealed STEMI with elevated troponin levels, arterial blood gas (ABG) showed severe metabolic acidosis, and echocardiography (echo) revealed ejection fraction 15%. He was initiated on venoarterial (VA) ECMO in view of refractory hypotension. History of consumption of three tabs of celphos was revealed later by the family members. He progressed to cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury with severe lactic acidosis, liver injury, pancreatitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). He was successfully supported by ECMO, hemodialysis, magnesium, trimetazidine, N-acetyl cysteine, inotropes, and blood products. He was weaned off ECMO on day 6 and was discharged home on day 12. Despite his severe and confounding clinical presentation, he had complete normalization of end-organ dysfunction with no neurological sequela. This case demonstrates the high index of suspicion required for ALP, given the potential for rapid progression and severe multiorgan toxicity. This report also highlights the importance of early referral to a tertiary care center with ECMO capability and also the role of magnesium and trimetazidine to suppress arrhythmias. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphide poisoning can present as STEMI with cardiogenic shock resulting in acute kidney injury, liver injury, pancreatitis, and DIC. Venoarterial ECMO provides an effective means of support until the recovery of organ function. Trimetazidine and magnesium are helpful in suppressing fatal arrhythmias. This report emphasizes that early recognition and early institution of ECMO can save many young lives who succumb to toxic effects of this poison.
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