Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

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VOLUME 24 , ISSUE 9 ( September, 2020 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Current Approaches to COVID-19: Therapy and Prevention

Subhal B Dixit, Khalid I Khatib, Pradeep Rangappa, Susruta Bandopadhyay, Om Shrivastav, Ujwala Mhatre

Keywords : Coronavirus, Coronavirus disease-2019, Heparin, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesvir, SARS-CoV-2, Tocilizumab

Citation Information : Dixit SB, Khatib KI, Rangappa P, Bandopadhyay S, Shrivastav O, Mhatre U. Current Approaches to COVID-19: Therapy and Prevention. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (9):838-846.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23470

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-10-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide. As our understanding of the disease is evolving, our approach to the patient management is also changing swiftly. Available new evidence is helping us take radical decisions in COVID-19 management. We searched for inclusion of the published literature on treatment of COVID-19 from around the globe. All relevant evidences available till the time of submission of this article were briefly discussed. Once advised as blanket therapy for all patients, recent reports of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin indicated no potential benefit and use of such combination may increase the risk of arrhythmias. Clinical evidence with newer antivirals such as remdesivir and favipiravir is promising that can hasten the patient recovery and reduce the mortality. With steroids, evidence is much clear in that it should be used in low dose and for short period not extending beyond 7 days in moderate to severe hospitalized patients. Low-molecular-weight heparin should be initiated in all hospitalized COVID-19 patients and dose should be based on the coagulation profile and risk of thromboembolism. Immunomodulatory drugs such tocilizumab may be considered for severe and critically ill patients to improve the outcomes. Though ulinastatin can be a potential alternative immunomodulator, there is lack of clinical evidence on its usage in COVID-19. Convalescent plasma therapy can be potentially lifesaving in critically ill patients. However, there is need to generate further evidence with various such therapies. Though availability of a potent vaccine is awaited, current treatment of COVID-19 is based on available therapies, which is guided by the evidence. In this review, we discuss the potential treatments available around the globe with current evidence on each of such treatments.


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