Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 24 , ISSUE S1 ( January, 2020 ) > List of Articles

GUIDELINES/POSITION STATEMENTS

ISCCM Guidelines for the Use of Non-invasive Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure in Adult ICUs

Subhal B Dixit, Kapil Gangadhar Zirpe, Dhruva Chaudhry, G C Khilnani, Khalid Ismail Khatib, Bharat G Jagiasi, Gunjan Chanchalani, Rajesh C Mishra, Deepak Govil, Sachin Gupta, Suresh Ramasubban, Jayesh Dobariya, Vikas Marwah, Inder Sehgal, Dr Sameer Arvind Jog, Atul Prabhakar Kulkarni

Keywords : Acute respiratory failure, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Guidelines, ICU, Mechanical ventilation, Non invasive ventilation

Citation Information :

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-G23186

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-01-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2020; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

A. ACUTE HYPERCAPNIC RESPIRATORY FAILURE A1. Acute Exacerbation of COPD: Recommendations: NIV should be used in management of acute exacerbation of COPD in patients with acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH = 7.25-7.35). (1A) NIV should be attempted in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (pH <7.25 & PaCO2 ? 45) before initiating invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) except in patients requiring immediate intubation. (2A). Lower the pH higher the chance of failure of NIV. (2B) NIV should not to be used routinely in normo- or mildly hyper-capneic patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, without acidosis (pH > 7.35). (2B) A2. NIV in ARF due to Chest wall deformities/Neuromuscular diseases: Recommendations: NIV may be used in patients of ARF due to chest wall deformity/Neuromuscular diseases. (PaCO2 ? 45) (UPP) A3. NIV in ARF due to Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS): Recommendations: NIV may be used in AHRF in OHS patients when they present with acute hypercapnic or acute on chronic respiratory failure (pH 45). (3B) NIV/CPAP may be used in obese, hypercapnic patients with OHS and/or right heart failure in the absence of acidosis. (UPP) B. NIV IN ACUTE HYPOXEMIC RESPIRATORY FAILURE: B1. NIV in Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema: Recommendations: NIV is recommended in hospital patients with ARF, due to Cardiogenic pulmonary edema. (1A). NIV should be used in patients with acute heart failure/cardiogenic pulmonary edema, right from emergency department itself. (1B) Both CPAP and BiPAP modes are safe and effective in patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. (1A). However, BPAP (NIV-PS) should be preferred in cardiogenic pulmonary edema with hypercapnia. (3A) B2. NIV in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: Recommendations: NIV may be used over conventional oxygen therapy in mild early acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (P/F ratio <300 and > 200 mmHg), under close supervision. (2B) We strongly recommend against a trial of NIV in patients with acute hypoxemic failure with P/F ratio <150. (2A) B3. NIV in ARF due to Chest Trauma: Recommendations: NIV may be used in traumatic flail chest along with adequate pain relief. (3B) B4. NIV in Immunocompromised Host: Recommendations: In Immunocompromised patients with early ARF, we may consider NIV over conventional oxygen. (2B). B5. NIV in Palliative Care: Recommendations: We strongly recommend use of NIV for reducing dyspnea in palliative care setting. (2A) B6. NIV in post-operative cases: Recommendations: NIV should be used in patients with post-operative acute respiratory failure. (2A) B6a. NIV in abdominal surgery: Recommendations: NIV may be used in patients with ARF following abdominal surgeries. (2A) B6b. NIV in bariatric surgery: Recommendations: NIV may be used in post-bariatric surgery patients with pre-existent OSA or OHS. (3A) B6c. NIV in Thoracic surgery: Recommendations: In cardiothoracic surgeries, use of NIV is recommended post operatively for acute respiratory failure to improve oxygenation and reduce chance of reintubation. (2A) NIV should not be used in patients undergoing esophageal surgery. (UPP) B6d. NIV in post lung transplant: Recommendations: NIV may be used for shortening weaning time and to avoid re-intubation following lung transplantation. (2B) B7. NIV during Procedures (ETI/Bronchoscopy/TEE/Endoscopy): Recommendations: NIV may be used for pre-oxygenation before intubation. (2B) NIV with appropriate interface may be used in patients of ARF during Bronchoscopy/Endoscopy to improve oxygenation. (3B) B8. NIV in Viral Pneumonitis ARDS: Recommendations: NIV cannot be considered as a treatment of choice for patients with acute respiratory failure with H1N1 pneumonia. However, it may be reasonable to use NIV in selected patients with single organ involvement, in a strictly controlled environment with close monitoring. (2B) B9. NIV and Acute exacerbation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Recommendations: Careful use of NIV in patients with acute Tuberculosis may be considered, with effective infection control precautions to prevent air-borne transmission. (3B) B10. NIV after planned extubation in high risk patients: Recommendation: We recommend that NIV may be used to wean high risk patients from invasive mechanical ventilation as it reduces re-intubation rate. (2B) B11. NIV for respiratory distress post extubation: Recommendations: We recommend that NIV therapy should not be used to manage respiratory distress post-extubation in high risk patients. (2B) C. APPLICATION OF NIV: Recommendation: Choice of mode should be mainly decided by factors like disease etiology and severity, the breathing effort by the patient and the operator familiarity and experience. (UPP) We suggest using flow trigger over pressure triggering in assisted modes, as it provides better patient ventilator synchrony. Especially in COPD patients, flow triggering has been found to benefit auto PEEP. (3B) D. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT ON NIV: D1. Sedation: Recommendations: A non-pharmacological approach to calm the patient (Reassuring the patient, proper environment) should always be tried before administrating sedatives. (UPP) In patients on NIV, sedation may be used with extremely close monitoring and only in an ICU setting with lookout for signs of NIV failure. (UPP) E. EQUIPMENT: Recommendations: We recommend that portable bilevel ventilators or specifically designed ICU ventilators with non-invasive mode should be used for delivering Non-invasive ventilation in critically ill patients. (UPP) Both critical care ventilators with leak compensation and bi-level ventilators have been equally effective in decreasing the WOB, RR, and PaCO2. (3B) Currently, Oronasal mask is the most preferred interface for non-invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. (3B) F. WEANING: Recommendations: We recommend that weaning from NIV may be done by a standardized protocol driven approach of the unit. (2B)


PDF Share
  1. Chawla R, Chaudhry D, Kansal S, Khilnani GC, Mani RK, Nasa P, et al. Guidelines for noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Indian J Crit Care Med 2013;S1:42-70.
  2. Davidson C, Banham S, Elliott M, Kennedy D, Gelder C, Glossop A, et al. British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Thorax 2002;57:192-211.
  3. International Consensus Conferences in Intensive Care Medicine: Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute respiratory Failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:283-291.
  4. Pingleton SK. Complications associated with mechanical ventilation. In: Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and Practice of Mechanical Ventilation. McGraw-Hill Inc, New York pp 1994;775-792.
  5. Davidson AC, Banham S, Elliott M, Kennedy D, Gelder C, Glossop A, et al. BTS/ICS guideline for the ventilatory management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in adults. Thorax 2016;71:ii1-ii35.
  6. Rochwerg B, Brochard L, Elliott MW, Hess D, Hill NS, Nava S, et al. Official ERS/ATS clinical practice guidelines: noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Eur Respir J 2017;50:pii 1602426.
  7. Demoule A, Chevret S, Carlucci A, Kouatchet A, Jaber S, Meziani F, et al. Changing use of noninvasive ventilation in critically ill patients: trends over 15 years in francophone countries. Intensive Care Med 2016;42(1):82-92.
  8. Chawla R, Khilnani GC, Suri JC, Ramakrishnan N, Mani RK, Prayag S, et al. International Reviewer: Brochard Laurent. Guidelines for noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Published 2005. https//:www.isccm.org Accessed 20/01/2020.
  9. Torres A, Aznar R, Gatell JM, Jimenez P, Gonzalez J, Ferrer A, et al. Incidence, risk and prognosis factors of nosocomial, pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:523-528.
  10. Craven DE, Kunches LM, Kilinsky V, Lichtenberg DA, Make BJ, McCabe WR. Risk factors for pneumonia and fatality in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;133:792-796.
  11. Fagon JY, Chastre J, Hance AJ, Montravers P, Novara A, Gibert C. Nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated patients: A cohort study evaluating attributable morality and hospital stay. Am J Med 1993;94:281-282.
  12. Violan JS, Sanchez-Ramirez C, Mujica AP, Cendrero JC, Fernandez JA, de Castro FR. Impact of nosocomial pneumonia on the outcome of mechanically-ventilated patients. Crit Care 1998;2:19-23.
  13. van Zanten ARH, Dixon JM, Nipshagen MD, de Bree R, Girbes ARJ, Polderman KH. Hospital-acquired sinusitis is a common cause of fever of unknown origin in orotracheally intubated critically ill patients. Crit Care 2005;9:R583.R590.
  14. George DL, Falk PS, Umberto Meduri G, Leeper KV Jr, Wunderink RG, Steere EL, et al. Nosocomial sinusitis in patients in the medical intensive care unit: a prospective epidemiological study. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:463.470.
  15. Agrafiotis, M, Vardakas, KZ, Gkegkes, ID, Kapaskelis, A, Falagas, ME. Ventilator-associated sinusitis in adults: systematic review and metaanalysis. Respir Med 2012;106(8):1082.1095.
  16. Khilnani GC, Zirpe K, Hadda V, Mehta Y, Madan K, Kulkarni A, et al. Guidelines for Antibiotic Prescription in Intensive Care Unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2019;23(Suppl 1): S1-S63.
  17. Plant PK, Owen J, Elliott MW. One year period prevalence study of respiratory acidosis in acute exacerbation of COPD; implications for the provision of non-invasive ventilation and oxygen administration. Thorax 2000;55:550.554.
  18. Roberts CM, Stone RA, Buckingham RJ, Pursey NA, Lowe D, et al. Acidosis, non-invasive ventilation and mortality in hospitalized COPD exacerbations. Thorax 2011;66:43.48.
  19. Jeffrey AA, Warren PM, Flenley DC. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: risk factors and use of guidelines for management. Thorax 1992;47:34.40.
  20. Keenan SP, Powers CE, McCormack DG. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with milder chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a randomized controlled trial. Respir Care 2005;50:610.616.
  21. Barbe F, Togores B, Rubi M, Pons S, Maimo A, Agusti AGN, et al. Noninvasive ventilatory support does not facilitate recovery from acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 1996;9:1240.1245.
  22. Bardi G, Pierotello R, Desideri M, Valdisserri L, Bottai M, Palla A. Nasal ventilation in COPD exacerbations: early and late results of a prospective, controlled study. Eur Respir J 2000;15:98.104.
  23. Wood KA, Lewis L, Von Harz B, Kollef MH. The use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the emergency department. Chest 1998;113:1339.1346.
  24. Collaborative Research Group of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Early use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Chin Med J 2005;118:2034.2040.
  25. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Davison AG. BTS guideline for emergency oxygen use in adult patients. Thorax 2008;63(6):vi1.vi68.
  26. Austin MA, Wills KE, Blizzard L, Walters EH, Wood-Baker R. Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in prehospital setting: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010;341:c5462.
  27. Angus RM, Ahmed AA, Fenwick LJ, Peacock AJ. Comparison of the acute effects on gas exchange of nasal ventilation and doxapram in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1996;51:1048.1050.
  28. Avdeev SN, Tretyakov AV, Grigoryants RA, Kutsenko MA, Chuchalin AG. Issledovanie primeneniia neinvazivnoi ventiliatsii legkikh pri ostroi dykhatel'noi nedostatochnosti na fone obostreniia khronicheskogo obstruktivnogo zabolevaniia legkik. [Study of the use of noninvasive ventilation of the lungs in acute respiratory insufficiency due exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.] Anesteziol Reanimatol 1998;3:45.51.
  29. Bott J, Carroll MP, Conway JH, Keilty SE, Ward EM, Brown AM, et al. Randomised controlled trial of nasal ventilation in acute ventilatory failure due to chronic obstructive airways disease. Lancet 1993;341:1555-1557.
  30. Brochard L, Mancebo J, Wysocki M, Lofaso F, Conti G, Rauss A, et al. Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 1995;333:817.822.
  31. Carrera M, Marin JM, Anton A, Chiner E, Alonso ML, Masa JF, et al. A controlled trial of noninvasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. J Crit Care 2009;24:473.e7-e14.
  32. Celikel T, Sungur M, Ceyhan B, Karakurt S. Comparison of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with standard medical therapy in hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. Chest 1998;114:1636.1642.
  33. Conti G, Antonelli M, Navalesi P, Rocco M, Bufi M, Spadetta G, et al. Noninvasive vs. conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after failure of medical treatment in the ward: a randomized trial. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:1701-1707.
  34. del Castillo D, Barrot E, Laserna E, Otero R, Cayuela A, Castillo Gomez J. Ventilacion no invasiva por soporte de presion en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva cronica en insuficiencia respiratoria aguda hipercapnica ingresados en una unidad de hospitalizacion convencional de neumologia. [Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a general respiratory ward.] Med Clin 2003;120:647.651.
  35. Dikensoy O, Ikidag B, Filiz A, Bayram N. Comparison of non-invasive ventilation and standard medical therapy in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: a randomised controlled study at a tertiary health centre in SE Turkey. Int J Clin Pract 2002;56:85.88.
  36. Jurjevi. M, Mati. I, Saki.-Zdravcevi. K, Saki. S, Dani. D, Bukovi. D. Mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, noninvasive vs. invasive method (randomized prospective study). Coll Antropol 2009;33:791.797.
  37. Khilnani GC, Saikia N, Banga A, Sharma SK. Non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbation of COPD with very high PaCO2: a randomized controlled trial. Lung India 2010;27:125.130.
  38. Kramer N, Meyer TJ, Meharg J, Cece RD, Hill NS. Randomized, prospective trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:1799.1806.
  39. Martin TJ, Hovis JD, Costantino JP, Bierman MI, Donahoe MP, Rogers RM, et al. A randomized, prospective evaluation of noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:807.813.
  40. Nava S, Grassi M, Fanfulla F, Domenighetti G, Carlucci A, Perren A, et al. Non-invasive ventilation in elderly patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. Age Ageing 2011;40:444.450.
  41. Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. Early use of non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on general respiratory wards: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:1931.1935.
  42. Schmidbauer W, Ahlers O, Spies C, Dreyer A, Mager G, Kerner T. Early prehospital use of non-invasive ventilation improves acute respiratory failure in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emerg Med J 2011;28:626.627.
  43. Thys F, Roeseler J, Reynaert M, Liistro G, Rodenstein DO. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure: a prospective randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eur Respir J 2002;20:545.555.
  44. Osadnik CR, Tee VS, Carson-Chahhoud KV, Picot J, Wedzicha JA, Smith BJ. Non-invasive ventilation for the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;7:CD004.CD104.
  45. Carrillo A, Ferrer M, Gonzalez-Diaz G, Lopez-Martinez A, Llamas N, Alcazar M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure caused by obesity hypoventilation syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012;186:1279.1285.
  46. Agarwal R, Gupta R, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to COPD vs other causes: effectiveness and predictors of failure in a respiratory ICU in North India. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2008;3(4):737.743.
  47. Keenan SP, Sinuff T, Cook DJ, Hill NS. Which patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease benefit from noninvasive positive.pressure ventilation? A systematic review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:86-70.
  48. Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. Non-invasive ventilation in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: long term survival and predictors of in-hospital outcome. Thorax 2001;56:708-712.
  49. Girou E, Brun-Buisson C, Taille S, Lemaire F, Brochard L. Secular trends in nosocomial infections and mortality associated with noninvasive ventilation in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pulmonary edema. JAMA 2003;290:2985-2991.
  50. Girou E, Schortgen F, Delclaux C, Brun-Buisson C, Blot F, Lefort Y, et al. Association of noninvasive ventilation with nosocomial infections and survival in critically ill patients. JAMA 2000;284:2361-2367.
  51. Diaz GG, Alcaraz AC, Talavera JC, Pérez PJ, Rodriguez AE, Cordoba FG, et al. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation to treat hypercapnic coma secondary to respiratory failure. Chest 2005;127:952-960.
  52. National association for medical direction of respiratory care. Clinical indications for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic respiratory failure due to restrictive lung disease, COPD and nocturnal hypoventilation: A consensus conference report. Chest 1999;116:521-534.
  53. Bach JR. Conventional approaches to managing neuromuscular ventilatory failure. Henley and Belfus: Philadelphia, PA; 1996.
  54. Finlay G, Concannon D, McDonnell TJ. Treatment of respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Ir J Med Sci 1995;164:28-30.
  55. Sturani C, Galavotti V, Scardeulli C, Sella D, Rosa A, Cauzzi R, et al. Acute respiratory failure, due to severe obstructive sleep apnoeasyndrome, managed with nasal positive pressure ventilation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1994;49:558-560.
  56. Shivaram U, Cash ME, Beal A. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure in decompensated hypercapnic respiratory failure as a complication of sleep apnoea. Chest 1993;104:770-774.
  57. Barach AL, Martin J, Eckman M. Positive pres-sure respiration and its application to the treatment of acute pulmonary edema. Ann Intern Med 1938;12:754-795.
  58. Poulton EP, Oxon DM. Left-sided heart failure with pulmonary oedema its treatment with the ‘pulmonary plus pressure machine’. Lancet 1936;228:981-983.
  59. Silvers SM, Howell JM, Kosowsky JM, Rokos IC, Jagoda AS, et al. Clinical policy: Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute heart failure syndromes. Ann Emerg Med 2007;49(5):627-669.
  60. Gray A, Goodacre S, Newby DE, Masson M, Sampson F, Nicholl J, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. New Engl J Med 2008;359(2):142-151.
  61. Masip J, Roque M, Sanchez B, Fernández R, Subirana M, Expósito JA. Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2005;294:3124-130.
  62. Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, Graham P, Bersten AD. Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (BIPAP) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: A meta-analysis. Lancet 2006;367:1155-1163.
  63. Vital FM, Ladeira MT, Atallah AN. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (CPAP or bilevel NPPV) for cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(3).
  64. Aliberti S, Rosti VD, Travierso C, Brambilla AM, Piffer F, Petrelli B, et al. A real life evaluation of non invasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a multicenter, perspective, observational study for the ACPE SIMEU study group. BMC Emerg Med 2018;18(1):61.
  65. R Agarwal, A N Aggarwal, D Gupta, Jindal SK. Non-invasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:637-643.
  66. Kinoshita M, Okayama H, Kawamura G, Shigematsu T, Takahashi T, Kawata Y, et al. Beneficial effects of rapid introduction of adaptive servo-ventilation in the emergency room in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. J Cardiol. 2017;69(1):308-313.
  67. Rusterholtz T, Bollaert PE, Feissel M, Romano-Girard F, Harlay ML, Zaehringer M, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure vs. proportional assist ventilation for noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34(5):840-846.
  68. Agarwal R, Reddy C, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D. Is there a role for noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome? A meta-analysis. Respir Med 2006;100:2235-2238.
  69. Agarwal R, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D. Role of noninvasive ventilation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a proportion meta-analysis. Respir Care 2010;55:1653-1660.
  70. Thille AW, Contou D, Fragnoli C, Córdoba-Izquierdo A, Boissier F, Brun- Buisson C. Non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: intubation rate and risk factors. Crit Care 2013;17(6):R269.
  71. Chawla R, Mansuriya J, Modi N, Pandey A, Juneja D, Chawla A, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure and intensive care unit mortality in clinical practice. J Crit Care 2016;31(1):26-30.
  72. Xu XP, Zhang XC, Hu SL, Xu JY, Xie JF, Liu SQ, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in acute hypoxemic nonhypercapnic respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2017;45(7):e727- e733.
  73. Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, Fan E, Brochard L, Esteban A, et al. Epidemiology, patterns of care, and mortality for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care units in 50 countries. JAMA 2016;315(8):788-800.
  74. Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, Madotto F, Fan E, Brochard L, et al. Noninvasive Ventilation of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Insights from the LUNG SAFE Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017;195(1):67-77.
  75. He H, Sun B, Liang L, Li Y, Wang H, Wei H, et al. ENIVA study group. A multicenter RCT of noninvasive ventilation in pneumonia-induced early mild acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care 2019;23:300.
  76. Hernandez G, Fernandez R, Lopez-Reina P, Cuena R, Pedrosa A, Ortiz R, et al. Non-invasive ventilation reduces intubation in chest traumarelated hypoxemia: a randomized clinical trial. Chest 2010;137:74-80.
  77. Bolliger CT, Van Eeden SF. Treatment of multiple rib fractures. Randomized controlled trial comparing ventilatory with nonventilatory management. Chest 1990;97:943-948.
  78. Gunduz M. A comparative study of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in patients with flail chest. Emerg Med J 2005;22:325-329.
  79. Keenan SP, Sinuff T, Burns KEA, Muscedere J, Kutsogiannis J, Mehta S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the use of noninvasive positivepressure ventilation and noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure in the acute care setting. CMAJ 2011;183(3):E195-E214.
  80. Hilbert G, Gruson D, Vargas F, Valentino R, Gbikpi-Benissan G, Dupon M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in immunosuppressed patients with pulmonary infiltrates, fever, and acute respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344(7):481-487.
  81. Rathi NK, Haque SA, Nates R, Kosturakis A, Wang H, Dong W, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation vs invasive mechanical ventilation as first-line therapy for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in cancer patients. J Crit Care 2017;39:56-61.
  82. Cortegiani A, Madotto F, Gregoretti C, Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, et al. Immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: secondary analysis of the LUNG SAFE database. Crit Care 2018;22(1):157.
  83. Lemiale V, Mokart D, Resche-Rigon M, Pène F, Mayaux J, Faucher E, et al. Effect of Noninvasive ventilation vs oxygen therapy on mortality among immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2015;314(16):1711-1719.
  84. Azoulay E, Pickkers P, Soares M, Perner A, Rello J, Bauer PR, et al. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients: the Efraim multinational prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med 2017;43(12):1808-1819.
  85. Huang HB, Xu B, Liu GY, Lin JD, Du B. Use of noninvasive ventilation in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care 2017;21(1):4.
  86. Zayed Y, Banifadel M, Barbarawi M, Kheiri B, Chahine A, Rashdan L, et al. Noninvasive oxygenation strategies in immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: a pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Intensive Care Med 2019:885066619844713.
  87. Wang T, Zhang L, Luo K, He J, Ma Y, Li Z, et al. Noninvasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pulm Med 2016;16(1):129.
  88. Nava S, Ferrer M, Esquinas A, Scala R, Groff P, Cosentini R, et al. Palliative use of non-invasive ventilation in end-of-life patients with solid tumours: a randomised feasibility trial. Lancet Oncol 2013;14(3):219.227.
  89. Jaber S, Chanques G, Jung B. Postoperative noninvasive ventilation. Anaesthesiology 2010;112:453.461
  90. Jaber S, Lescot T, Futier E, Paugam-Burtz C, Seguin P, Ferrandiere M, et al. Effect of noninvasive ventilation on tracheal reintubation amongs patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure following abdominal surgery; randomised clinical trial. JAMA 2016;315:1345.1353.
  91. Jaber S, Delay J, Chanques G, Sebbane M, Jacquet E, Souche B, et al. Outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure after abdominal surgery treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Chest 2005;128:2688.2695
  92. Ferreyra GP, Baussano I, Squadrone V, Richiardi L, Marchiaro G, Del Sorbo L, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of respiratory complications after abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg 2008;247(4):617.626.
  93. Romero-Corral A, Caples SM, Lopez-Jimenez F, Somers VK. Interactions between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: implications for treatment. Chest 2010;137:711.719.
  94. Lopez PP, Stefan B, Schulman CI, Byers PM. Prevalence of sleep apnea in morbidly obese patients who presented for weight loss surgery evaluation: more evidence for routine screening for obstructive sleep apnea before weight loss surgery. Am Surg 2008;74:834.838.
  95. Sareli AE, Cantor CR, Williams NN, Korus G, Raper SE, Pien G, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing bariatric surgery--a tertiary center experience. Obes Surg 2011;21:316.327.
  96. Gaszynski T, Tokarz A, Piotrowski D, Machala W. Boussignac CPAP in the postoperative period in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg 2007;17(4):452.456.
  97. Pessoa KC, Araujo GF, Pinheiro AN, Ramos MR, Maia SC. Noninvasive ventilation in the immediate postoperative of gastrojejunal derivation with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Rev Bras Fisioter 2010;14(4):290.295.
  98. Wong DT, Adly E, Ip HY, Thapar S, Maxted GR, Chung FF. A comparison between the Boussignac continuous s positive airway pressure mask and the venturi mask in terms of improvement in the PaO2/F(I)O2 ratio in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Can J Anaesth 2011;58(6):532.539.
  99. Stefan MS, Hill NS, Raghunathan K, Liu X, Pekow PS, Memtsoudis SG, et al. Outcomes associated with early postoperative noninvasive ventilation in bariatric surgical patients with sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(11):1507.1516.
  100. Jensen C, Tejirian T, Lewis C, Yadegar J, Dutson E, Mehran A. Postoperative CPAP and BiPAP use can be safely omitted after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2008;4:512.524.
  101. Kurrek MM, Cobourn C, Wojtasik Z, Kiss A, Dain SL. Morbidity in patients with or at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea after ambulatory laparoscopic gastric banding. Obes Surg 2011;21:1494. 1498.
  102. Tong S, Gower J, Morgan A, Gadbois K, Wisbach G. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the immediate post-bariatric surgery care of patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2017;13(7):1227.1233
  103. Weiss YG, Merin G, Koganov E, Ribo A, Oppenheim-Eden A, Medalion B, et al. Postcardiopulmonary bypass hypoxemia: a prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and clinical significance. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2000;14:506.513.
  104. Tenling A, Hachenberg T, Tyden H, Wegenius G, Hedenstierna G. Atelectasis and gas exchange after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 1998;89:371.378.
  105. Auriant I, Jallot A, Heve P, Cerrina J, Le Roy Ladurie F, Fournier JL, et al. Noninvasive ventilation reduces mortality in acute respiratory failure after lung resection. Am J Respir Crit Med 2001;164:1231.1235.
  106. Stephan F, Barrucand B, Petit P, Rezaiguia-Delclaux S, Medard A, Delannoy B, et al. High flow nasal oxygen vs noninvasive positive pressure in hypoxemic patients after cardiothoracic surgery: a randomised clinical trial. JAMA 2015;313:2331.2339
  107. Zhu G, Huang Y, Wei D, Shi Y. Efficacy and safety of noninvasive ventilation in patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(38):e4734.
  108. Jean-Lavaleur M, Perrier V, Roze H, Sarrabay P, Fleureau C, Janvier G. Stomach rupture associated with noninvasive ventilation. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2009;28:588.591
  109. Van de Louw A, Brocas E, Boiteau R, Perrin-Gachadoat D, Tenaillon A. Esophageal perforation associated with noninvasive ventilation: a case report. Chest 2002;122:1857.1858
  110. Charlesworth M, Lawton T, Fletcher S. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure following oesophagectomy: Is it safe? A systematic review of the literature. J Intensive Care Soc 2015;16(3):215.221
  111. Feltracco P, Serra E, Barbieri S, Milevoj M, Furnari M, Rizzi S, et al; Noninvasive Ventilation in Postoperative Care of Lung Transplant Recipients. Transplant Proc 2009;41(4):1339.1344.
  112. Agarwal R, Khan A, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D. Bronchoscopic Lung Biopsy Using Noninvasive Ventilatory Support: Case Series and Review of Literature of NIV. assisted Bronchoscopy. Respir Care 2012;57(11):1927.1936.
  113. Clouzeau B, Bui HN, Guilhon E, Grenouillet-Delacre M, Leger MS, Saghi T, et al. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy under noninvasive ventilation and propofol target.controlled infusion in hypoxemic patients. Intensive Care Med 2011;37:1969.1975.
  114. Baumann HJ, Klose H, Simon M, Ghadban T, Braune SA, Hennigs JK, et al. Fiber optic bronchoscopy in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring noninvasive ventilation.a feasibility study. Crit Care 2011;15:R179.
  115. Sircar M, Jha OK, Chabbra GS, Bhattacharya S. Noninvasive ventilation assisted bronchoscopy in high risk hypoxemic patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2019;23(8):363.367.
  116. Baillard C, Fosse JP, Sebbane M, Chanques G, Vincent F, Courouble P, et al. Noninvasive ventilation improves preoxygenation before intubation of hypoxic patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:171.177.
  117. Jaber S, Jung B, Corne P, Sebbane M, Muller L, Chanques G, et al. An intervention to decrease complications related to endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: A prospective, multiple.center study. Intensive Care Med 2010;36:248.255.
  118. Futier E, Constantin JM, Pelosi P, Chanques G, Massone A, Petit A, et al. Noninvasive ventilation and alveolar recruitment maneuver improve respiratory function during and after intubation of morbidly obese patients: A randomized controlled study. Anesthesiology 2011;11:1354.1363.
  119. Rello J, Rodriguez A, Ibanez P, Socias L, Cebrian J, Marques A, et al. Intensive care adults patients with severe respiratory failure caused by influenza A (H1N1)v in Spain. Crit Care 2009;13:R148.
  120. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Pinto R, Cook DJ, Marshall J, Lacroix J, et al. for the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group H1N1 Collaborative. Critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection in Canada. JAMA 2009;302:1872.1879.
  121. Miller RR, Markewitz BA, Rolfs RT, Brown SM, Dascomb KK, Grissom CK, et al. Clinical findings and demographic factors associated with intensive care unit admission in Utah due to 2009 novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. Chest 2010;137(4):752.758.
  122. Masclans JR, Perez M, Almirall J, Lorente L, Marques A, Socias L, et al. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for severe influenza pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013;19(3):249.256.
  123. Rodriguez A, Ferri C, Martin-Loeches I, Diaz E, Masclans JR, Gordo F, et al. Risk Factors for Noninvasive Ventilation Failure in Critically Ill Subjects With Confirmed Influenza Infection. Respir Care 2017;62(10):1307.1315.
  124. Hernández Garcés H, Navarro Lacalle A, Lizama López L, Zaragoza Crespo R. Risk factors associated to noninvasive ventilation failure in primary influenza A pneumonia in the critical care setting. Med Intensiva 2020;pii: S0210-5691(19)30277-3.
  125. Aso H, Kondoh Y, Taniguchi H, Kimura T, Nishiyama O, Kato K, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae. Intern Med 2010;49(19):2077-2083.
  126. Agarwal R, Gupta D, Handa A, Aggarwal AN. Noninvasive ventilation in ARDS caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: report of three cases and review of literature. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:1723.
  127. Ram FS, Picot J, Lightowler J, Wedzicha JA. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3):CD004104.
  128. NICE clinical guidance [CG12]. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease— Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care. 2004. http://www.nice.org. uk/guidance/cg12
  129. Antonelli M, Conti G, Moro ML, Esquinas A, Gonzalez-Diaz G, Confalonieri M, et al. Predictors of failure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: a multi-center study. Intensive Care Med 2001;27(11):1718- 1728.
  130. Smith DB, Tay GTP, Hay K, Antony J, Bell B, Kinnear FB, et al. Mortality in acute non-invasive ventilation. Intern Med J 2017;47:1437-1440.
  131. Antonelli M, Conti G, Esquinas A, Montini L, Maggiore SM, Bello G, et al. A multiple-center survey on the use in clinical practice of noninvasive ventilation as a first-line intervention for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 2007;35(1):18-25.
  132. Rodríguez A, Ferri C, Martin-Loeches I, Díaz E, Masclans JR, Gordo F, et al. Risk factors for noninvasive ventilation failure in critically ill subjects with confirmed influenza infection. Respir Care 2017;62(10):1307-1315.
  133. Carteaux G, Millán-Guilarte T, De Prost N, Razazi K, Abid S, Thille AW, et al. Failure of noninvasive ventilation for de novo acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: role of tidal volume. Crit Care Med 2016;44(2):282-290.
  134. Frat JP, Ragot S, Coudroy R, Constantin JM, Girault C, Prat G, et al. Predictors of intubation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with a noninvasive oxygenation strategy. Crit Care Med 2018;46(2):208-215.
  135. Corrêa TD, Sanches PR, de Morais LC, Scarin FC, Silva E, Barbas CS, et al. Performance of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients: a prospective, observational, cohort study. BMC Pulm Med 2011;15:144.
  136. Nava S, Ambrosino N, Bruschi C, Confalonieri M, Rampulla C. Physiological effects of flow and pressure triggering during noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1997;52(3):249-254.
  137. Aslanian P, El Atrous S, Isabey D, Valente E, Corsi D, Harf A, et al. Effects of flow triggering on breathing effort during partial ventilatory support. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:135e43.
  138. Mehta S, McCool FD, Hill NS. Leak compensation in positive pressure ventilators: A lung model study. Eur Respir J 2001;17:259-267.
  139. Rabec C, Rodenstein D, Leger P, Rouault S, Perrin C, Gonzalez-Bermejo J, et al. Ventilator modes and settings during non-invasive ventilation: effects on respiratory events and implications for their identification. Thorax 2011; 66:170-178.
  140. Cao Z, Luo Z, Hou A, Nie Q, Xie B, An X, et al. Volume-targeted versus pressure-limited noninvasive ventilation in subjects with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Respir Care 2016;61(11):1440-1450.
  141. Calderini E, Confalonieri M, Puccio PG, Francavilla N, Stella L, Gregoretti C. Patient- ventilator asynchrony during noninvasive ventilation: The role of expiratory trigger. Intensive Care Med 1999;25:662-667.
  142. Briones Claudett KH, Briones Claudett M, Chung Sang Wong M, Martinez AN, Espinoza RS, Montalvo M, et al. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation with average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy. BMC Pulm Med 2013;12;13:12.
  143. Çiftci F, Çiledaô A, Erol S, Öz M, Acar D, Kaya A. Evaluation of the feasibility of average volume-assured pressure support ventilation in the treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pilot study. J Crit Care 2017;39:232-237.
  144. Türk M, Aydoôdu M, Gürsel G. Effects of modes, obesity, and body position on non-invasive positive pressure ventilation success in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled study. Turk Thorac J 2018;19(1):28-35.
  145. Murphy PB, Davidson C, Hind MD, Simonds A, Williams AJ, Hopkinson NS, et al. Volume targeted versus pressure support non-invasive ventilation in patients with super obesity and chronic respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2012;67(8):727-734.
  146. Selim B, Ramar K. Advanced positive airway pressure modes: adaptive servo ventilation and volume assured pressure support. Expert Rev Med Devices 2016;13(9):839-851.
  147. Gay PC, Hess DR, Hill NS. Noninvasive proportional assist ventilation for acute respiratory insufficiency. Comparison with pressure support ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001:164(9):1606-1611.
  148. Elganady AA, Beshey BN, Abdelaziz AAH. Proportional assist
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.