Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Critically Ill Patients Admitted to Tertiary Care Intensive Care Units in India during the Peak Months of First and Second Waves of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Analysis
Shanta Dutta, Aayushi Mahajan, Munisha Agarwal
Coronavirus disease-2019, Coronavirus disease-2019 intensive care unit, Coronavirus disease-2019 in India, Mortality, Predictors, Severity
Citation Information :
Dutta S, Mahajan A, Agarwal M. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Critically Ill Patients Admitted to Tertiary Care Intensive Care Units in India during the Peak Months of First and Second Waves of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Analysis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25 (12):1349-1356.
Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) continues to pose serious challenges to healthcare systems globally with the disease progressing over time in crest-trough pattern of waves. We compared the patient characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients admitted during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of medical records of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at the peak period of both waves. The data on demographics, symptoms, treatment received, and outcomes of patients were recorded.
Results: Compared to first wave, significantly more females, younger age group, and those without underlying comorbidities required ICU admission during the second wave. The treatments received during both periods were similar except for preferential use of methylprednisolone over dexamethasone and proclivity of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation over high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). There was no significant difference in the duration of ICU stay and mortality of patients. During the first wave, the factors associated with nonsurvival of patients were advanced age, comorbidities, severe disease, and a lesser number of days on HFNC. All these factors along with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were observed to be linked with patient nonsurvival during the second wave.
Conclusion: In India, the second wave of COVID-19 significantly influenced ICU demographics with a predominance of females and young adults requiring critical care. During both time periods, patients received similar treatment except for the propensity to use methylprednisolone and BiPAP as opposed to dexamethasone and HFNC in second wave. No significant difference in ICU mortality was noted.
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