Background: The majority of nosocomial infections in the hospital setting are found in intensive care units (ICUs). The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence, risk factors, causative microorganisms, and outcome of various ICU-acquired infections.
Materials and methods: The patients admitted to the ICU of a teaching hospital in North India were prospectively studied. Detailed history, clinical examination, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score II, simplified acute physiology score II, sequential organ failure assessment score, and baseline investigations were recorded. Patients were assessed daily till 14th day for nosocomial infection as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines and were followed till death or discharge. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome parameters were calculated using Student t-test, Chi-square test, and stepwise multivariate logistic regression model.
Results: The overall incidence rate of ICU infections was 27.9%. The most common ICU-acquired infection was ventilator-associated pneumonia followed by catheter-related bloodstream infection and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were implicated in most of the infections. ICU length of stay (LOS) >7 days, neurological dysfunction, endotracheal intubation, ischemic heart disease, and use of antacids/H2 blockers were significantly associated with ICU-acquired infections. The mortality rate was 32.8 and 28.8% in patients with and without ICU infections, respectively (p = 0.531). The ICU LOS (19.23 ± 12.79 days) was significantly higher in the ICU infections group (p <0.001).
Conclusion: Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most common nosocomial infection in our study. Gram-negative microorganisms were the predominant causative agents for various ICU-acquired infections. Mortality was not found to be affected but ICU LOS was significantly prolonged as a consequence of the development of ICU-acquired infection.
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