Citation Information :
Reddy PR, Aluru N, Boggu R. Comparison of Severity of COVID-19 Infection among Patients Using RAAS Inhibitors and Non-RAAS Inhibitors. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25 (4):366-368.
Aims and objectives: The aim of the article was to study the safety profile of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor in COVID-19-affected Indian patients.
Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 infection. There has been uncertainty about use of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19. The association of RAAS inhibitors with severity of infection and clinical outcomes was addressed in this study.
Materials and methods: This is a single-center retrospective study from Indian intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 138 were included, who were divided into group A (RAAS inhibitor) and group B (non-RAAS inhibitor). They are followed up till ICU stay during which peak levels of ferritin, D dimer, interleukin-6 were noted (primary outcome). The number of ventilator days, ICU length of stay, and ICU outcome also compared.
Results: Of 138 patients, 18 are included in group A and 120, in group B. There is no difference in peak levels (mean) D dimer [5,893 vs 7,710, p 0.46], ferritin [2,388 vs 3,635, p 0.56], interleukin-6 [9,597 vs 3,625, p 0.06]. There is no difference in number of ventilator days (2.2 vs 1.78, p 0.53) and ICU length of stay (6.5 vs 6.1, p 0.74).
Conclusion: RAAS inhibitors can be safely continued in COVID-19 infection. It is not associated with an increase in severity of infection, ICU length of stay, and mortality.
Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020;323(13):1239–1242. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.2648.
Shukla U, Chavali S, Mukta P, Mapari A, Vyas A. Initial experience of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Western India: a case series. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(7):509–513. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23477.
Liu J, Zheng X, Tong Q, Li W, Wang B, Sutter K, et al. Overlapping and discrete aspects of the pathology and pathogenesis of the emerging human pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV. J Med Virol 2020;92(5):491–494. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25709.
Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID-19 epidemic. Trop Med Int Health 2020;25(3):278–280. DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13383.
Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, et al. A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury. Nat Med 2005;11(8):875–879. DOI: 0.1038/nm1267.
Kuba K, Imai Y, Ohto-Nakanishi T, Penninger JM. Trilogy of ACE2: a peptidase in the renin-angiotensin system, a SARS receptor, and a partner for amino acid transporters. Pharmacol Ther 2010;128(1):119–128. DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2010.06.003.
Ferrario CM, Jessup J, Chappell MC, Averill DB, Brosnihan KB, Tallant EA, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Circulation 2005;111(20):2605–2610.
Zhang P, Zhu L, Cai J, Lei F, Qin JJ, Xie J, et al. Association of inpatient use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with mortality among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19. Circ Res 2020;126(12):1671–1681. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317134.
Hippisley-Cox J, Young D, Coupland C, Channon KM, Tan PS, Harrison DA, et al. Risk of severe COVID-19 disease with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: cohort study including 8.3 million people. Heart 2020;106(19):1503–1511. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317393.
Liu X, Long C, Xiong Q, Chen C, Ma J, Su Y, et al. Association of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with risk of COVID-19, inflammation level, severity, and death in patients with COVID-19: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Cardiol 2020:10.1002/clc.23421. DOI: 10.1002/clc.23421.
Rico-Mesa JS, White A, Anderson AS. Outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection taking ACEI/ARB. Curr Cardiol Rep 2020;22(5):31. DOI: 10.1007/s11886-020-01291-4.