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VOLUME 25 , ISSUE 6 ( June, 2021 ) > List of Articles

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Role of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and ECMO in the Management of COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Sanjana Nagraj, Rutu Karia, Sahar Hassanain, Prithwish Ghosh, Viraj R Shah, Abin Thomas

Keywords : Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, Critically ill, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Invasive mechanical ventilation, SARS-CoV-2 infection

Citation Information : Nagraj S, Karia R, Hassanain S, Ghosh P, Shah VR, Thomas A. Role of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and ECMO in the Management of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25 (6):691-698.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23870

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Objectives: This systematic review aims to provide insight into the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and invasive mechanical ventilation use in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Data sources: Electronic databases PubMed Central and PubMed were searched from January 2020 to June 2020 for published studies about ECMO and/or invasive mechanical ventilation use in COVID-19 patients. Data Extraction and Study Selection: The search strategy retrieved 766 articles, of which 19 studies consisting of 204 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Data synthesis: Primary outcomes evaluated were discharge and/or clinical improvement and mortality rate. Secondary outcomes evaluated included reported complications and the mean number of days of hospitalization for survivors. Weighted averages of included studies were calculated, and data were pooled in forest plots. Nearly, 68.1% of the patients received invasive mechanical ventilation without ECMO support, and 31.9% were placed on ECMO. Also, 22.5% of the patients were discharged and/or clinically improved and 51.5% died. Twenty-six percent of the study population deteriorated but remained alive or experienced no improvement in clinical condition. And 75.2% of those who died belonged to the non-ECMO group and 24.8% to the ECMO group. The mortality rate in the non-ECMO group was 56.8% compared to 40% in the ECMO group. Conclusion: The utility of ECMO during a pandemic is uncertain as it is a resource-intensive modality, especially when the mortality rate in severely ill patients infected with COVID-19 virus is already known to be high.


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