Tropical infections constitute 20 – 30% of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in developing countries. Leptospirosis is a spectrum with mild form presenting as an acute febrile illness with jaundice, complicating in few as acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The poor prognostic markers are hemorrhagic ARDS, acute renal failure, DIC, severe metabolic acidosis, older age, chronic alcohol abuse, high SOFA score, and septic shock. The confirmatory diagnosis relies on antibody testing, such as microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and IgM ELISA, while the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test being reserved for clinically suspected antibody negative cases. The spectrum of multi-organ involvement necessitates a complete hematological, biochemical workup, including electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X-ray, and two-dimensional echocardiography. Specific antimicrobial therapy consists of the following—benzylpenicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and doxycycline. The reported mortality ranges from 6% to as high as 44%. Various ICU scores like SPiRO, THAI LEPTO score, and Faine's criteria have been useful in risk stratification. Optimizing intensive care treatment with appropriate antibiotics, lung protection ventilation strategies, strict fluid management, and if need be timely initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) helps in reducing mortality.
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