Background: Epidemiology of liver disease in obstetric patients shows geographical variation depending upon the prevalence of preeclampsia, viral hepatitis, and tropical vector-borne diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, etc. We undertook the current systematic review to analyze the causes of hepatic dysfunction in obstetric patients in India and identify the gaps in the literature and reporting.
Materials and methods: We did a systematic review of studies reporting the causes of hepatic dysfunction in obstetric patients in India. A methodological quality assessment was done using a five-point questionnaire.
Results: A total of 21 studies qualified for evaluation. The rate of hepatic dysfunction among obstetric patients in India ranged from 0.15 to 3.3% with a mean and median rate of 1.49 and 0.93%, respectively. Preeclampsia/HELLP (mean = 36.0%, median = 31.4%, range: 3.6–83.8%) and viral hepatitis (mean = 34.1%, median = 35.5%, range: 5.1–61.8%) were the commonest causes of hepatic dysfunction. Other causes were intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, tropical fever (malaria, leptospirosis, dengue, scrub typhus), etc. Maternal mortality ranged from 1.4 to 40% (mean = 12.6%, median = 10.0%) and perinatal mortality was between 16.4 and 38.70% (mean = 31.75%, median = 35.5%).
Conclusion: There is moderate quality evidence to show that preeclampsia/HELLP and viral hepatitis are the commonest causes of hepatic dysfunction in obstetric patients in India.
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