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VOLUME 26 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Changes in Maximum Tongue Pressure and Postoperative Dysphagia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients after Cardiovascular Surgery

Toru Yamada, Ryoichi Ochiai, Yoshifumi Kotake

Keywords : Cardiovascular surgery, Dysphagia, Mechanical ventilator, Postintensive care syndrome, Tongue pressure

Citation Information : Yamada T, Ochiai R, Kotake Y. Changes in Maximum Tongue Pressure and Postoperative Dysphagia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients after Cardiovascular Surgery. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022; 26 (12):1253-1258.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24365

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 08-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Background: There is no objective quantitative parameter for dysphagia, and the relationship between changes in maximum tongue pressure values and dysphagia is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference in the change in maximal tongue pressure after extubating patients who were ventilated after cardiovascular surgery, with or without dysphagia. Materials and methods: Adult patients who underwent mechanical ventilation via endotracheal intubation following cardiovascular surgery were included. Tongue pressure was measured before cardiovascular surgery and at 6 hours; 3 and 7 days after extubation. Dysphagia was confirmed by the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) on day 7 after extubation; an FOIS level above or equal to 6 was considered “dysphagia-negative.” Results: Of 68 patients, 15 (22.1%) were in the dysphagia-positive group, which significantly showed a history of diabetes mellitus, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and postextubation hospitalization. Additionally, the postoperative C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the dysphagia-positive group than in the dysphagia-negative group. Maximum tongue pressure was significantly lower in the dysphagia-positive group at 3 and 7 days postextubation. Using a cutoff value of 27.6 kPa in a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) for maximum tongue pressure at 3 days after extubation, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.82, sensitivity was 84.9%, and specificity was 84.2%. Conclusion: Tongue pressure at 3 days after extubation is significantly lower in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery than in patients without dysphagia. If the maximum tongue pressure value is below 27.6 kPa on the third day following extubation, oral intake should be performed with caution.

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