Physical Restraint and Associated Factors in Adult Patients in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-sectional Study in North of Iran
Mahin Nomali, Aryan Ayati, Mohammad Yadegari, Mahdis Nomali, Mahnaz Modanloo
Critical care, Intensive care, Intensive care unit, Physical restraint
Citation Information :
Nomali M, Ayati A, Yadegari M, Nomali M, Modanloo M. Physical Restraint and Associated Factors in Adult Patients in Intensive Care Units: A Cross-sectional Study in North of Iran. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022; 26 (2):192-198.
Background/aim: Patients in the intensive care units (ICUs) are at high risk of developing delirium and agitation. Physical restraint (PR) has increased to control these patients which accompanies by adverse consequences. The aim was to determine the PR use and associated factors in patients hospitalized at the ICUs in the North of Iran.
Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 272 patients in 3 ICUs of 5 Azar referral hospital affiliated to Golestan University of Medical Sciences (Gorgan, Iran) in 2018 were included. Confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU), Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were used to evaluate delirium, sedation level, disease severity, and level of consciousness, respectively. Analysis was done by STATA version 14.2 (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas), univariate and multiple analyses.
Results: Data from 272 patients were analyzed (mean age of 45.8 ± 21.3 years). PR was used for 74.5% of patients. Restrained patients had more severe disease [mean of APACHE II score, 20.20 (7.5) vs 11.6 (7.1)], longer length of stay [mean of 10 (5.5) vs 5.5 (4.6) days], and lower level of consciousness [mean of GCS score, 8.7 (3.5) vs 13.5 (3.3)] than patients without it. CAM-ICU was positive in majority of patients (79.5 vs 10.4%) and agitation level of RASS score was higher in restrained patients (31.7 vs 3.0%). Associated factors in multiple analysis were use of sedative and psychoactive drugs [odds ratio (OR), 2.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–7.82], presence of delirium (OR, 15.13; 95% CI: 4.61–49.65), deep sedation (OR, 0.04; 95% CI: 0.00–0.45), and GCS score (OR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53–0.9).
Conclusion: This study revealed the high use of PR in the ICUs, and use of sedative and psychoactive drugs, presence of delirium, deep sedation, and GCS score were such associated factors.
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