Citation Information :
Todur P, Nileshwar A, Chaudhuri S, Srinivas T. Incidence, Outcomes, and Predictors of Subphenotypes of Acute Kidney Injury among Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients: A Prospective Observational Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2023; 27 (10):724-731.
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a heterogeneous syndrome with subphenotypes. Acute kidney injury is one of the most common complications in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, which influences mortality.
Material and methods: It was a single-center observational study on 266 ARDS patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) to determine the subphenotypes of AKI associated with ARDS. Subphenotyping was done based on the serum creatinine (SCr) trajectories from day 1 to day 5 of IMV into resolving (subphenotype 1) or non-resolving (subphenotype 2) AKI.
Results: Out of 266 ARDS patients, 222 patients were included for data analysis. 141 patients (63.51%) had AKI. The incidence of subphenotype 2 AKI among the ARDS cohort was 78/222 (35.13%). Subphenotype 2 AKI was significantly more among the non-survivors (87.7% vs 36.2 %, p < 0.001). Subphenotype 2 AKI was an independent predictor of mortality among ARDS patients (p < 0.001, adjusted odds ratio 8.978, 95% CI [2.790–28.89]. AKI subphenotype 1 had higher median day 1 SCr than subphenotype 2 but lower levels by day 3 and day 5 of IMV. The median time of survival was 8 days in AKI subphenotype 2 vs 45 days in AKI with subphenotype 1 [Log-Rank (Mantel-Cox) p < 0.001]. The novel DRONE score (Driving pressure, Oxygenation, and Nutritional Evaluation) ≥ 4 predicted subphenotype 2 AKI.
Conclusion: The incidence of subphenotype 2 (non-resolving) AKI among ARDS patients on IMV was about 35% (vs 20% subphenotype 1 AKI), and it was an independent predictor of mortality. The DRONE score ≥4 can predict the AKI subphenotype 2.
Highlights: The serum creatinine trajectory-based subphenotype of AKI (resolving vs non-resolving) determines survival in ARDS patients. Non-resolving AKI subphenotype 2 is an independent predictor of mortality in ARDS. The novel DRONE score (driving pressure, oxygenation, and nutritional evaluation) ≥ 4 within 48 hours of IMV predicted the AKI subphenotype 2 among ventilated ARDS patients.
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