Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 28 , ISSUE 6 ( June, 2024 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

End-of-life Care Patient Information Leaflets—A Comparative Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence-generated Content for Readability, Sentiment, Accuracy, Completeness, and Suitability: ChatGPT vs Google Gemini

Prakash G Gondode, Puneet Khanna, Pradeep Sharma, Sakshi Duggal, Neha Garg

Keywords : Artificial intelligence, ChatGPT, End-of-life care, Gemini, Intensive care, Palliative care, Patient education, Readability

Citation Information : Gondode PG, Khanna P, Sharma P, Duggal S, Garg N. End-of-life Care Patient Information Leaflets—A Comparative Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence-generated Content for Readability, Sentiment, Accuracy, Completeness, and Suitability: ChatGPT vs Google Gemini. Indian J Crit Care Med 2024; 28 (6):561-568.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24725

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-05-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Background: End-of-life care (EOLC) is a critical aspect of healthcare, yet accessing reliable information remains challenging, particularly in culturally diverse contexts like India. Objective: This study investigates the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in addressing the informational gap by analyzing patient information leaflets (PILs) generated by AI chatbots on EOLC. Methodology: Using a comparative research design, PILs generated by ChatGPT and Google Gemini were evaluated for readability, sentiment, accuracy, completeness, and suitability. Readability was assessed using established metrics, sentiment analysis determined emotional tone, accuracy, and completeness were rated by subject experts, and suitability was evaluated using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). Results: Google Gemini PILs exhibited superior readability and actionability compared to ChatGPT PILs. Both conveyed positive sentiments and high levels of accuracy and completeness, with Google Gemini PILs showing slightly lower accuracy scores. Conclusion: The findings highlight the promising role of AI in enhancing patient education in EOLC, with implications for improving care outcomes and promoting informed decision-making in diverse cultural settings. Ongoing refinement and innovation in AI-driven patient education strategies are needed to ensure compassionate and culturally sensitive EOLC.

PDF Share
  1. Myatra SN, Salins N, Iyer S, Macaden SC, Divatia JV, Muckaden M, et al. End-of-life care policy: An integrated care plan for the dying: A joint position statement of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) and the Indian Association of Palliative Care (IAPC). Indian J Crit Care Med 2014;9:615–635. DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229. 140155.2.
  2. Gursahani R, Mani RK, Simha S. Making end-of-life and palliative care viable in India: A blueprint for action. Natl Med J India 2019;3:129–133. DOI: 10.4103/0970-258X.278684.
  3. Pallium India. Quality of Death Index 2021. Pallium India. Available from:,59th%20among%2081%20countries%20studied.
  4. Gursahani R, Mani RK. India: Not a country to die in. Indian J Med Ethics 2016;1(1):30–35. DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2016.007.
  5. Bhattad PB, Pacifico L. Empowering patients: Promoting patient education and health literacy. Cureus 2022;14(7):e27336. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.27336.
  6. Cheong RCT, Unadkat S, Mcneillis V, Williamson A, Joseph J, Randhawa P, et al. Artificial intelligence chatbots as sources of patient education material for obstructive sleep apnoea: ChatGPT versus Google Bard. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2024;281(2):985–993. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-023-08319-9.
  7. Divatia JV, Amin PR, Ramakrishnan N, Kapadia FN, Todi S, Sahu S, et al. INDICAPS study investigators. Intensive care in India: The Indian intensive care case mix and practice patterns study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2016;20(4):216–225. DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.180042.
  8. Bhatnagar S, Biswas S, Kumar A, Gupta R, Sarma R, Yadav HP, et al. Institutional end-of-life care policy for inpatients at a Tertiary Care Centre in India: A way forward to provide a system for a dignified death. Indian J Med Res 2022;155(2):232–242. DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_902_21.
  9. Menon MR. Ethics and medicolegal aspects of withdrawal of treatment in critical care patients without advanced directives in India: Who will guard the guardians themselves? Indian J Crit Care Med 2023;28(1):15–17. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24600.
  10. McIlfatrick S, Slater P, Beck E, Bamidele O, McCloskey S, Carr K, et al. Examining public knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards palliative care: A mixed method sequential study. BMC Palliat Care 2021;20(1):44. DOI: 10.1186/s12904-021-00730-5.
  11. Google Trends. Google Trends - Explore. Google Trends; Available from: q=%2Fm%2F02qyw_s&date=now%201-d&geo=IN&hl=en.
  12. Tariq R, Khanna S. Artificial intelligence-powered patient education for comprehensive and individualized understanding for patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2023:S1542–3565(23)00910-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2023.10.027.
  13. Dwivedi YK, Kshetri N, Hughes L, Slade EL, Jeyaraj A, Kar AK, et al. “So what if ChatGPT wrote it?” Multidisciplinary perspectives on opportunities, challenges and implications of generative conversational AI for research, practice and policy. Int J Inform manage 2023;71:102642. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2023.102642.
  14. Hatem R, Simmons B, Thornton JE. A call to address AI “Hallucinations” and how healthcare professionals can mitigate their risks. Cureus 2023;15(9):e44720. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.44720.
  15. Al Kuwaiti A, Nazer K, Al-Reedy A, Al-Shehri S, Al-Muhanna A, Subbarayalu AV, et al. A review of the role of artificial intelligence in healthcare. J Pers Med 2023;13(6):951. DOI: 10.3390/jpm130 60951.
  16. Mani RK, Simha S, Gursahani R. Simplified legal procedure for end-of-life decisions in India: A new dawn in the care of the dying? Indian J Crit Care Med 2023;27(5):374–376. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals- 10071-24464.
  17. Indian Association of Palliative care. IAPC news announcements laws. supreme court judgement copy: Advance medical directives (Living Will) and withdrawal of life support treatment. Available at:
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.