Aim: To assess the accuracy of the passive leg raising (PLR) test to anticipate fluid responsiveness in critically ill children under age of 5 years. Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted, in a university hospital pediatric intensive care unit from June 1, 2017, to January 30, 2018. Hemodynamic parameters including stroke volume using bedside transthoracic echocardiography were assessed at baseline I (45° semi-recumbent position), after PLR, at baseline II, and following fluid challenge. Changes in the stroke volume (delta SV) and in the cardiac index (CI) were recorded after PLR and fluid challenge. Findings: Delta SV of 10% after PLR was an excellent discriminator of the fluid responsiveness with an area under ROC (AUC) of 0.81 (95% CI 0.68–0.9) with a sensitivity of 65.38% and a specificity of 100%. The change in CI of 8.7% after PLR was a significant discriminator of fluid responsiveness with an AUC of 0.7 (95% CI 0.56–0.81) with 57.78% sensitivity and 91.67% specificity. Conclusion: Passive leg raising can identify nonresponders among seriously ill children under the age of 5 years but it cannot identify all responders with certainty. Clinical significance: Passive leg raising is reliable test in under 5 year-old-children if performed appropriately using bedside echocardiography for the measurement of its transient effect.
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