Delirium is an acute neurologic dysfunction characterized by fluctuating alteration in awareness, attention, and cognition and is a result of an underlying medical condition or its treatment. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the intensive care setting and may lead to long-term cognitive impairment in survivors. Pediatric delirium (PD) occurs in as many as 25% of critically ill children. The pathophysiology of delirium is complex and widespread screening of this entity is lacking. To diagnose PD, a high index of suspicion should be kept in the patients who are at high risk, and appropriate screening tools should be applied, as the symptoms of PD overlap with other commonly observed neurological phenomena in pediatric intensive care unit.
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