Background: The number of studies evaluating delirium and its frequency in critically ill infants, children, and adolescents is increasing day by day. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate all patients hospitalized in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in terms of pediatric delirium, to determine the frequency and risk factors of pediatric delirium.
Patients and methods: The patients included in this study had been hospitalized in the PICU between November 1, 2018, and August 31, 2019, and were followed up for more than 48 hours.
Results: Delirium was detected in 14 patients (9.9%) through regular evaluations. The Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM2) scores and the length of stay in the PICU were higher in patients with delirium (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). The use of respiratory support, sedation-analgesia, vasoactive and corticosteroid treatments, and physical restraints were higher in patients with delirium and were statistically significant (p <0.05). Following admission to the PICU, psychosocial interventions were implemented for 76.1% of the whole cohort. Delirium developed in only five (4.5%) of the 108 patients who underwent psychosocial interventions, while it was detected in nine (26.5%) of the 34 patients who did not receive psychosocial interventions (p = 0.001). The psychosocial intervention was associated with a lower likelihood of delirium (odds ratio [OR], 0.237; p = 0.044). An increasing number of days in the PICU was independently associated with increasing odds of delirium (OR, 1.095; p = 0.037 for each day).
Conclusions: We observed that the risk factors associated with delirium were similar to previous studies. Additionally, psychosocial intervention before delirium symptoms developed was associated with a lower risk of developing delirium. However, multicenter randomized controlled trials are needed on this subject.
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