Citation Information :
Ponnambath DK, Gopalakrishnan A, Pillai VV, Kaviyil JE, Raja K. Clinical Profile of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis due to Candida parapsilosis: An 11-year Retrospective Observational Study from a Quaternary Cardiac Referral Institute in India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25 (8):860-865.
Background: Recent changes in the diagnostic criteria and the introduction of newer technologies like prosthetic valve replacement require the need to identify the changing epidemiology of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE).
Materials and methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Patients diagnosed with Candida parapsilosis definite and possible PVE as per modified Duke's criteria for a period of 11 years from January 2010 to December 2020 were included for the analysis.
Results: Twelve of the 47 PVE cases (25.5%) were caused by C. parapsilosis. The median age of the patients was 52 years. Males were predominantly affected (58%). Based on the modified Duke's criteria, eight (67%) were definite infective endocarditis (IE) cases. The single valve was affected in 11 cases (92%) with the mitral valve being the commonest (n = 8, 67%). The type of valve commonly involved was mechanical [n = 10, 83%]. The mean size of the vegetation was 13.15 mm. Most cases (n = 7, 58%) were late-onset PVE. The mean C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and procalcitonin (PCT) levels for C. parapsilosis PVE were 70.2 mg/L, 51.08 mm/hour, and 0.3 ng/mL, respectively. The rates of complications and in-hospital mortality were 75% each. The most common observed complication was embolic events (n = 8, 67%). Statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05) was observed for mean vegetation size, overall complications, embolic events, and mortality for C. parapsilosis PVE when compared with bacterial PVE.
Conclusion:C. parapsilosis was the commonest etiological agent causing PVE. Predominant mitral valve involvement, higher rates of late-onset presentation, complications, and mortality were key differential characteristics observed.
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