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VOLUME 26 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2022 ) > List of Articles

Pediatric Critical Care

A Retrospective Analysis of Clinical Manifestations, Management and Outcome of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Associated with Coronavirus Disease-2019 Infection in Children

Mihir Sarkar, Bratesh Das, Manas K Mahapatra, Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Sambhunath Das, Mithun C Konar

Keywords : Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Children, Coronavirus disease-2019, Pediatric intensive care unit

Citation Information : Sarkar M, Das B, Mahapatra MK, Roychowdhoury S, Das S, Konar MC. A Retrospective Analysis of Clinical Manifestations, Management and Outcome of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Associated with Coronavirus Disease-2019 Infection in Children. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022; 26 (3):331-338.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24145

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 30-03-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with COVID-19 in children is not well described in the literature, so this study was designed to assess the severity, clinical course, different treatment measures, and outcome of this group of patients. Patients and methods: This descriptive study was performed by retrospective chart review of children admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in the age-group of 1 month to 12 years over the period of 6 months (July–December 2020) in a tertiary care pediatric COVID facility in eastern India. Severity of ARDS, ventilator settings, oxygenation and laboratory parameters, and outcomes were documented. Predictors associated with severe ARDS were evaluated. Results: Among 128 laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 cases admitted in PICU, 18 (14%) developed ARDS, 6 (33.3%) had severe ARDS, and 3 (16.6%) succumbed to death. Outcome was measured by median hospital stay [20 days (IQR 19, 21)], PICU stay [13 days (IQR 10, 16)], and 28-day ventilator-free days [14 days (IQR 13, 22)]. Half (n = 9) of our study cohort had different comorbidities and congenital heart disease being the most common (4, 22.2%). Median positive end-expiratory pressure requirement was 10 cm H2O (9, 11) for invasively ventilated children (n = 13, 72.2%) along with peak inspiratory pressure of 24 cm H2O (20, 29) and mean airway pressure of 17 cm H2O (14, 20). Median oxygenation index was 13.3 (10.5, 18.6). Nine (69.2%) out of 13 intubated children had undergone prone ventilation. C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer levels were significantly high in children with severe ARDS alongside pSOFA and lung USG score. Conclusion: Incidence of ARDS in pediatric COVID-19 though less but is not rare. Elevated CRP, D-dimer values, and high lung USG scores were associated with severe ARDS. Those who died had significant comorbidity.


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