Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

Register      Login



Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 22 , ISSUE 12 ( 2018 ) > List of Articles


Turnaround time for red blood cell transfusion in the hospitalized patient: A single-center “Blood Ordering, Requisitioning, Blood Bank, Issue (of Blood), and Transfusion Delay” study

Naveen Agnihotri, Ajju Agnihotri

Keywords : Blood arrangement, blood transfusion, delay, turnaround time

Citation Information : Agnihotri N, Agnihotri A. Turnaround time for red blood cell transfusion in the hospitalized patient: A single-center “Blood Ordering, Requisitioning, Blood Bank, Issue (of Blood), and Transfusion Delay” study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2018; 22 (12):825-830.

DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_403_18

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 01-12-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Background and Aim: The turnaround time (TAT) for blood transfusion (BT) is an important quality indicator for the health-care institutions undertaking this procedure. There is no established national or international benchmark for this TAT due to the dearth of a published literature. We thus studied the TAT and the contributory procedures leading to delay in commencing a red blood cell transfusion in the hospitalized patient. Materials and Methods: Delay was captured for the blood order transcription, requisitioning and sampling by the nurse, blood bank (BB) processing, blood issue, and the transfusion commencement in the hospitalized patients. The study was done prospectively over a 1-year period and involved all the patient locations spread over six floors in a tertiary care accredited hospital. Results: A total of 2022 blood requests were analyzed during the study period. Most (73%) of the blood requests were marked as urgent by the treating unit. The average time from ordering to initiation of BT was 135 min in our study. BB processes (compatibility testing and issue) comprised approximately 47% of this delay (63 min), while rest of the delay happened in the processes (ordering 13 min, sample transport 34 min, and BT commencement 25 min) outside the BB (72 min). Conclusion: Majority of the delay for blood transfusion happens due to the processes outside blood bank premises. Understanding the steps where delay happens has the potential to reduce the turnaround time for lifesaving procedures such as blood transfusion in the hospitalized patients.

PDF Share
  1. Pfuntner A, Wier LM, Stocks C. Most Frequent Procedures Performed in U.S. Hospitals, 2010. HCUP Statistical Brief #149. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; February, 2013. Available from: [Last accessed on 2018 Aug 28].
  2. Ngo LT, Bruhn R, Custer B. Risk perception and its role in attitudes toward blood transfusion: A qualitative systematic review. Transfus Med Rev 2013;27:119-28.
  3. Lee AJ, Kim SG. Analysis of turnaround time for intraoperative red blood cell issues: A single-center study. Lab Med 2017;48:277-81.
  4. Available from: [Last accessed on 2018 Apr 26].
  5. Howanitz PJ, Cembrowski GS, Steindel SJ, Long TA. Physician goals and laboratory test turnaround times. A college of American pathologists Q-probes study of 2763 clinicians and 722 institutions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1993;117:22-8.
  6. Pati HP, Singh G. Turnaround time (TAT): Difference in concept for laboratory and clinician. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2014;30:81-4.
  7. Tinegate HN, Davies T, Elshaw RJ, Jane G, Lyon M, Norfolk DR, et al. When and why is blood crossmatched? A prospective survey of transfusion laboratory practice in two regions in the North of England. Vox Sang 2010;99:163-7.
  8. Tan TC, Zhou H, Kelly M. Nurse-physician communication – An integrated review. J Clin Nurs 2017;26:3974-89.
  9. Aggarwal G, Tiwari AK, Arora D, Dara RC, Acharya DP, Bhardwaj G, et al. Advantages of type and screen policy: Perspective from a developing country! Asian J Transfus Sci 2018;12:42-5.
  10. Pupek A, Matthewson B, Whitman E, Fullarton R, Chen Y. Comparison of pneumatic tube system with manual transport for routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas tests. Clin Chem Lab Med 2017;55:1537-44.
  11. Sackett K, Kjell A, Schneider AM, Cohn CS. A field analysis trial comparing the turnaround times of routine and STAT red blood cell immunohematology testing. Immunohematology 2017;33:1-5.
  12. Bajpai M, Kaur R, Gupta E. Automation in immunohematology. Asian J Transfus Sci 2012;6:140-4.
  13. Novis DA, Friedberg RC, Renner SW, Meier FA, Walsh MK. Operating room blood delivery turnaround time: A college of American pathologists Q-probe study of 12647 units of blood components in 466 institutions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002;126:909-14.
  14. Kim SH, Chung YN, Kim YR, Kang SH. Analysis of turnaround times of blood issue at an Island hospital. Korean J Blood Transfus 2012;23:217-23.
  15. McClain CM, Hughes J, Andrews JC, Blackburn J, Sephel S, France D, et al. Blood ordering from the operating room: Turnaround time as a quality indicator. Transfusion 2013;53:41-8.
  16. Choudhury N. Need to change present regulatory framework for blood banks in India. Asian J Transfus Sci 2011;5:1-2.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.