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VOLUME 20 , ISSUE 12 ( 2016 ) > List of Articles


Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema

Naman Agrawal

Keywords : Diuretics, emergency department, high-dose nitroglycerin, noninvasive ventilation, pulmonary edema, sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema

Citation Information : Agrawal N. Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema. Indian J Crit Care Med 2016; 20 (12):719-723.

DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.195710

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 01-11-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; The Author(s).


Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema (SCAPE) is the extreme end of the spectrum of acute pulmonary edema. It is important to understand this disease as it is relatively common in the emergency department (ED) and has better outcomes when managed appropriately. The patients have an abrupt redistribution of fluid in the lungs, and when treated promptly and effectively, these patients will rapidly recover. Noninvasive ventilation and intravenous nitrates are the mainstay of treatment which should be started within minutes of the patient′s arrival to the ED. Use of morphine and intravenous loop diuretics, although popular, has poor scientific evidence.

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