Citation Information :
Karakitsos D, Alharthy A, Gillman LM, Blaivas M, Buchanan BM, Brindley PG, Wattanathum A. Evaluating Extravascular Lung Water in Sepsis: Three Lung-Ultrasound Techniques Compared against Transpulmonary Thermodilution. Indian J Crit Care Med 2018; 22 (9):650-655.
Background: Excessive extravascular lung water (EVLW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We compared three lung-ultrasound (L-US) techniques against the reference-standard transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) technique to access EVLW.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, single-blind, cross-sectional study. Forty-four septic patients were enrolled. EVLW index was measured by the TPTD method, and an index of ≥10 mL/kg was considered diagnostic of pulmonary edema. EVLW index was then compared to three established bedside L-US protocols that evaluate sonographic B-lines: (1) a 28-zone protocol (total B-line score [TBS]) (2) a scanning 8-region examination, and (3) a 4-point examination.
Results: Eighty-nine comparisons were obtained. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between L-US TBS and an EVLW index ≥10 mL/kg (r = 0.668,P < 0.001). The 28-zone protocol score ≥39 has a sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 76.5% to define EVLW index ≥10 mL/kg. In contrast, the positive 4-point examination and scanning 8-regions showed low sensitivity (23.7% and 50.0%, respectively) but high specificity (96.1% and 88.2%, respectively). Ten patients with a total of 21 comparisons met criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this subgroup, only the TBS had statistically significant positive correlation to EVLW (r = 0.488,P = 0.025).
Conclusion: L-US is feasible in patients with severe sepsis. In addition, L-US 28-zone protocol demonstrated high specificity and better sensitivity than abbreviated 4- and 8-zone protocols. In ARDS, the L-US 28-zone protocol was more accurate than the 4- and 8-zone protocols in predicting EVLW. Consideration of limitations of the latter protocols may prevent clinicians from reaching premature conclusions regarding the prediction of EVLW. Trial Registration: ISRCTN11419081. Registered 4 February 2015 retrospectively.
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