Optic nerve sheath diameter as a marker for evaluation and prognostication of intracranial pressure in Indian patients: An observational study
Chetan Shirodkar, Dnyaneshwar Mutkule, Yogesh Harde, Pradeep Venkategowda, M. Mahesh
Computed tomography, intensive care unit, magnetic resonance imaging, mannitol, optic nerve sheath diameter, raised intracranial pressure, ultrasonography
Citation Information :
Shirodkar C, Mutkule D, Harde Y, Venkategowda P, Mahesh M. Optic nerve sheath diameter as a marker for evaluation and prognostication of intracranial pressure in Indian patients: An observational study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2014; 18 (11):728-734.
Background and Aims: The aim was to evaluate efficacy of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound as a noninvasive method for detecting raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in intensive care unit, to compare with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of raised ICP and to prognosticate ONSD value with treatment.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study on 101 adults by including 41 healthy individuals in group A as control and 60 patients in group B admitted with fever, headache, vomiting, and altered sensorium. We examined them in supine position using 10 MHz linear array probe on closed eyelid. ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the globe in each eye. A mean binocular ONSD > 4.6 mm in female and 4.8 mm in male was considered abnormal. Midline shift, edema, effacement or ONSD > 5.0 mm on T2 MRI suggestive of elevated ICP was used to evaluate ONSD accuracy.
Results: Group A mean ONSD was 4.6 mm in females and 4.8 mm in males. Group B mean ONSD for 17 females was 5.103 ± 0.6221 mm (P = 0.002) and for 43 males 5.081 ± 0.5799 mm (P = 0.032). Radiological sign of raised ICP was confirmed in 35 patients (females = 11 and males = 24) with high ONSD value. Sensitivity of detecting raised ICP by ONSD was 84.6% in females and 75% in males while specificity was 100% in both genders. Out of 25 patients without radiological signs of raised ICP 10 patients showed high ONSD (females = 4.735 mm and males = 4.907 mm). ONSD was well prognosticated with treatment modalities.
Conclusion: Bedside ocular ultrasonography for measuring ONSD can be used an early test for diagnosing raised ICP as it is a noninvasive, cost effective bedside test, which can be repeated for re-evaluation.
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