Though there is no Class I evidence for the benefit of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, the bulk of the published literature supports its use when indicated. This review deals with the pathophysiology of raised ICP, evidence for and against monitoring, and basic guidelines for monitoring. It is unfortunate that ICP monitoring is not routinely performed in most of the centres in India due to the popular perception of it being risky, technologically complex and expensive. This article is an attempt to provide all the essential information on this complex topic without going into excessive detail, in the hope that ICP monitoring will be more widely used in India.
Guillaume J, Janny P. Manometrie intracranienne continuι interest de la methode et premiers resultants. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1951;84:131-42.
Lundberg N. Continuous recording and control of ventricular fluid pressure in neurosurgical practice. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1960;Suppl 149:1-193.
The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurotrauma 2000;17:479-91.
The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Intracranial pressure treatment threshold. J Neurotrauma 2000;17:491-6.
The Brain Trauma Foundation. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons. The Joint Section on Neurotrauma and Critical Care. Recommendations for intracranial pressure monitoring technology. J Neurotrauma 2000;17:497-506.
Marmarou A. Pathophysiology of intracranial pressure. In: Narayan RK, Wilberger JE, Povlishock JT, editors. Neurotrauma 1st Ed. McGraw-Hill 1996. p. 413-28.
Miller JD, Stanek A, Langfitt TW. Concepts of cerebral perfusion pressure and vascular compression during intracranial hypertension. Prog Brain Res 1972;35:411-32.
Graham DI, Ford I, Adams JH, Doyle D, Teasdale GM, Lawrence AE, et al. Ischaemic brain damage is still common in fatal non-missile head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:346-50.
Rosner MJ, Rosner SD, Johnson AH. Cerebral perfusion pressure: Management protocol and clinical results. J Neurosurg 1995;83:949-62.
Robertson CS, Valadka AB, Hannay HJ, et al. Prevention of secondary ischemic insults after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 1999;27:2086-95.
Young JS, Blow O, Turrentine F, Claridge JA, Schulman A. Is there an upper limit of intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury if cerebral perfusion pressure is maintained? Neurosurg Focus 2003;15:E2.
Juul N, Morris GF, Marshall SB, Marshall LF. Intracranial hypertension and cerebral perfusion pressure: Influence on neurological deterioration and outcome in severe head injury. The Executive Committee of the International Selfotel Trial. J Neurosurg 2000;92:1-6.
Gopinath SP, Robertson CS, Contant CF, Hayes C, Feldman Z, Narayan RK, et al. Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994;57:717-23.
Narayan RK, Kishore PR, Becker DP, Ward JD, Enas GG, Greenberg RP, et al. Intracranial pressure: To monitor or not to monitor? A review of our experience with severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1982;56:650-9.
Miller MT, Pasquale M, Kurek S, White J, Martin P, Bannon K, et al. Initial head computed tomographic scan characteristics have a linear relationship with initial intracranial pressure after trauma. J Trauma 2004;56:967-72.
Kaups KL, Davis JW, Parks SN. Routinely repeated computed tomography after blunt head trauma: Does it benefit patients? J Trauma 2004;56:475-80.
Cho DY, Chen TC, Lee HC. Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Surg Neurol 2003;60:227-32.
Strege RJ, Lang EW, Stark AM, Scheffner H, Fritsch MJ, Barth H, et al. Cerebral edema leading to decompressive craniectomy: An assessment of the preceding clinical and neuromonitoring trends. Neurol Res 2003;25:510-5.
Becker DP, Miller JD, Ward JD, Greenberg RP, Young HF, Sakalas R. The outcome from severe head injury with early diagnosis and intensive management. J Neurosurg 1977;47:491-502.
Heuer GG, Smith MJ, Elliott JP, Winn HR, LeRoux PD. Relationship between intracranial pressure and other clinical variables in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 2004;101:408-16.
Marmarou A, Anderson Rl, Ward JD. Impact of ICP instability and hypotension on outcome of patients with severe head trauma. J Neurosurg 1975. p. S50-66.
Saul TG, Ducker TB. Effect of intracranial pressure monitoring and aggressive treatment on mortality in severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1982;56:498-503.
Vukic M, Negovetic L, Kovac D, Ghajar J, Glavic Z, Gopcevic A. The effect of implementation of guidelines for the management of severe head injury on patient treatment and outcome. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1999;141:1203-8.
Stuart GG, Merry GS, Smith JA, Yelland JD. Severe head injury managed without intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurosurg 1983;59:601-5.
Joseph M. Intracranial pressure monitoring in a resource-constrained environment: A technical note. Neurol India 2003;51:333-5.
Marshall LF, Smith RW, Shapiro HM. The outcome with aggressive treatment in severe head injuries. Part I: The significance of intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurosurg 1979;50:20-5.
Mack WJ, King RG, Ducruet AF, Kreiter K, Mocco J, Maghoub A, et al. Intracranial pressure following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Monitoring practices and outcome data. Neurosurg Focus 2003;14:E3.
Nakanishi K, Hirasawa H, Oda S, Shiga H, Matsuda K, Nakamura M, et al. Intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with fulminant hepatic failure treated with plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration. Blood Purif 2005;23:113-8.