Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Archive
Related articles

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 2 ( April, 2006 ) > List of Articles

GUIDELINES

Guidelines for noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

J. C. Suri, N. Ramakrishnan, R. K. Mani, G. C. Khilnani, U. S. Sidhu, Shruti Nagarkar

Citation Information : Suri JC, Ramakrishnan N, Mani RK, Khilnani GC, Sidhu US, Nagarkar S. Guidelines for noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Indian J Crit Care Med 2006; 10 (2):117-147.

DOI: 10.4103/0972-5229.25926

License: CC BY-ND 3.0

Published Online: 01-04-2006

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2006; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract


PDF Share
  1. Burns KE, Sinuff T, Adhikari NK, Meade MO, Heels-Ansdell D, Martin CM, et al. Bilevel noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure: Survey of Ontario practice. Crit Care Med 2005;33:1477-83.
  2. Majid A, Hill N. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005;11:77-81.
  3. BTS guidelines noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Thorax 2002;57:192-211.
  4. International consensus conferences in intensive care medicine. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute respiratory Failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:283-91.
  5. Pingleton SK. Complications associated with mechanical ventilation. In:Tobin MJ (ed) Principles and Practice of Mechanical Ventilation. McGraw-Hill Inc, New York pp 1994;775-792
  6. Torres A, Aznar R, Gatell JM, et al. Incidence, risk and prognosis factors of nosocomial, pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:523-8.
  7. Craven DE, Kunches LM, Kilinsky V, Lichtenberg DA, Make BJ, McCabe WR. Risk factors for pneumonia and fatality in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;133:792-6.
  8. Fagon JY, Chastre J, Hance AJ, Montravers P, Novara A, Gibert C. Nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated patients: A cohort study evaluating attributable morality and hospital stay. Am J Med 1993;94:281-2.
  9. Meduri GU, Fox RC, Abou-Shala N, Leeper KV, Wunderink RG. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation via face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure who refused endotracheal intubation. Crit Care Med 1994;22:1584-90.
  10. Niedieman MS, Mandell LA, Anzueto A, Bass JB, Broughton WA, Campbell GD, et al. Guidelines for the management of adults with community acquired pneumonia: Diagnosis. Assessment of severity, antimicrobial therapy and prevention. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2001;163:1730-54.
  11. Bott J, Carroll MP, Conway JH, Keilty SE, Ward EM, Brown AM, et al. Randomized controlled trial of nasal ventilation in acute ventilatory failure due to chronic obstructive airways disease. Lancet 1993;341:1555-7.
  12. Brochard L, Mancebo J, Wysocki M, Lofaso F, Conti G, Rauss A, et al. Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 1995;333:817-22.
  13. Kramer N, Meyer TJ, Meharg J, Cece RD, Hill NS. Randomized prospective trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:1799-806.
  14. Khilnani GC, Saikia N, Sharma SK, et al. Efficacy of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for management of COPD with acute or acute on chronic respiratory failure: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care 2002;165:A387.
  15. Avdeev SN, Tret′iakov AV, Grigor′iants RA, Kutsenko MA, Chuchalin AG. Study of the use of noninvasive ventilation of the lungs in acute respiratory insufficiency due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Anestesiol Reanimatol 1998;3:45-51.
  16. Sidhu US, Behera D. Non invasive ventilation in COPD. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2000;42:105-14.
  17. Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. Early use of non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on general respiratory wards: A multicentre randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:1931-5.
  18. Ceikel T, Sungur M, Ceyhan B, Karakurt S. Comparison of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with standard medical therapy in hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. Chest 1998;114:1636-42.
  19. Conti G, Antonelli M, Navalesi P, Rocco M, Bufi M, Spadetta G, et al. Noninvasive Vs conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after failure of medical treatment in the ward: A randomized trial. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:1701-7.
  20. Squadrone E, Frigerio P, Fogliati C, Gregoretti C, Conti G, Antonelli M, et al. Noninvasive versus invasive ventilation in COPD patients with severe acute respiratory failure deemed to require ventilatory assistance. Intensive Care Med 2004;30:1303-10.
  21. Diaz GG, Alcaraz AC, Talavera JC, Perez PJ, Rodriguez AE, Cordoba FG, et al. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation to treat hypercapnic coma secondary to respiratory failure. Chest 2005;127:952-60.
  22. Keenan SP, Powers C, McCormack DG. Noninvasive ventilation in milder COPD exacerbations: An RCT. Am J Respir Crit Care 2001;163:A250.
  23. Barbe F, Togores B, Rubi M, Pons S, Maimo A, Agusti AG. Noninvasive ventilatory support does not facilitate recovery from acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 1996;9:1240-5.
  24. Dikensoy O, Ikidag B, Filiz A, Bayram N. Comparison of non-invasive ventilation and standard medical therapy in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: A randomized controlled study at a tertiary health center in southeast Turkey. Int J Clin Pract 2002;56:85-8.
  25. Bardi G, Pierotello R, Desideri M, Valdisserri L, Bottai M, Palla A. Nasal ventilation in COPD exacerbations: Early and late results of a prospective, controlled study. Eur Respir J 2000;15:98-104.
  26. Lightowler JV, Wedzicha JA, Elliot MW, Ram FS. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;326:185-9.
  27. Keenan SP, Sinuff T, Cook DJ, Hill NS. Which patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease benefit from noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation? A systematic review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:861-70.
  28. Elliott MW. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Management of ventilatory failure in COPD. Thorax 2003;58:537-42.
  29. Elliott MW. Noninvasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Eng J Med 1995;333:13:370-1.
  30. National association for medical direction of respiratory care. Clinical indications for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic respiratory failure due to restrictive lung disease, COPD and nocturnal hypoventilation: A consensus conference report. Chest 1999;116:521-34.
  31. Bach JR. Conventional approaches to managing neuromuscular ventilatory failure. Henley & Belfus: Philadelphia, PA; 1996.
  32. Finlay G, Concannon D, McDonnell TJ. Treatment of respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Ir J Med Sci 1995;164:28-30.
  33. Meduri GU, Cook TR, Turner RE, Cohen M, Leeper KV. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in status asthmaticus. Chest 1996;110:767-74.
  34. Fernandez MM, Villagra A, Blanch L, Fernandez R. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in status asthmaticus. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:486-92.
  35. Soroksky A, Stav D, Shpirer I. A pilot prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bilevel positive airway pressure in acute asthmatic attack. Chest 2003;123:1018-25.
  36. Ram F, Wellington S, Rowe B, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to severe acute exacerbations of asthma. Cochrane database Syst Rev 2005;3:CDOO4360.
  37. Holley MT, Morrissey TK, Seaberg DC, Afessa B, Wears RL. Ethical dilemmas in a randomized trial of asthma treatment: Can Bayesian statistical analysis explain the results? Acad Emerg Med 2001;8:1128-35.
  38. Sturani C, Galavotti V, Scardeulli C, Sella D, Rosa A, Cauzzi R, et al. Acute respiratory failure, due to severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, managed with nasal positive pressure ventilation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1994;49:558-60
  39. Shivaram U, Cash ME, Beal A. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure in decompensated hypercapnic respiratory failure as a complication of sleep apnoea. Chest 1993;104:770-4.
  40. Cuvelier A, Muir JF. Acute and Chronic respiratory failure in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. A new challenge for noninvasive ventilation. Chest 2005;128:483-5.
  41. Hodson ME, Madden BP, Steven MH, Tsang VT, Yacoub MH. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation for cystic fibrosis patients: A potential bridge to transplantation. Eur Resp J 1991;4:524-7.
  42. Madden BP, Kariyawasam H, Siddiqi AJ, Machin A, Pryor JA, Hodson ME. Noninvasive ventilation in cystic fibrosis patients with acute or chronic respiratory failure. Eur Resp J 2002;19:310-3.
  43. Meduri GU, Turner RE, Abou-Shala N, Wunderink R, Tolley E. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation via face mask: First-line intervention in patients with acute hypercapnic and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Chest 1996;109:179-93.
  44. Wysocki M, Tric L, Wolff MA, Gertner J, Millet H, Herman B. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. Chest 1995;107:761-8.
  45. Ferrer M, Esquinas A, Leon M, Gonzalez G, Alarcon A, Torres A. Noninvasive ventilation in severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: A randomized clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:1438-44.
  46. Confalonieri M, Potena A, Carbone G, Porta RD, Tolley EA, Umberto MG, et al. Acute respiratory failure in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: A prospective randomized evaluation of noninvasive ventilation. Am Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1585-91.
  47. Wysocki, Antonelli M. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Eur Respir J 2001;18:209-20.
  48. Martin TJ, Hovis JD, Costantino JP, et al. A randomized prospective evaluation of noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care 2000;161:807-13.
  49. Antonelli M, Conti G, Bufi M, Costa MG, Lappa A, Rocco M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation for treatment of acute respiratory failure in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation: A randomized trial. JAMA 2000;283:235-41.
  50. Hilbert G, Gruson D, Vargas F, Valentino R, Gbikpi-Benissan G, Dupon M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in immunosuppressed patients with pulmonary infiltrates, fever and acute respiratory failure. N Eng J Med 2001;344:481-7.
  51. Antonelli M, Conti G, Rocco M, Bufi M, De Blasi RA, Vivino G, et al. A comparison of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and conventional mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure. N Eng J Med 1998;339:429-35.
  52. Bersten AD, Holt AW, Vedig AE, Skowronski GA, Baggoley CJ. Treatment of severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema with continuous positive airway pressure delivered by facemask. N Eng J Med 1991;325:1825-30.
  53. Lin M, Yang YF, Chiany HT, Chang MS, Chiang BN, Cheitlin MD. Reappraisal of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema: Short-term results and long-term follow up. Chest 1995;107:1379-86.
  54. Rasanen J, Heikkila J, Downs J, Nikki P, Vaisanen I, Viitanen A. Continuous positive airway pressure by facemask in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Am J Cardiol 1985;55:296-300.
  55. Masip J, Betbese AJ, Paez J, Vecilla F, Canizares R, Padro J, et al. Non-invasive pressure support ventilation versus conventional oxygen therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: A randomized trial. Lancet 2000;356:2126-32.
  56. Sharon A, Shpirer I, Kaluski E, Moshkovitz Y, Milovanov O, Polak R, et al. High-dose intravenous isosorbide-dinitrate is safer and better than Bi-PAP ventilation combined with conventional treatment for severe pulmonary edema. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:832-7.
  57. Mehta S, Jay GD, Woolard RH, Hipona RA, Connolly EM, Cimini DM, et al. Randomized prospective trial of bilevel versus continuous positive airway pressure in acute pulmonary edema. Crit Care Med 1997;25:620-8.
  58. Delclaux C, L′Her E, Alberti C, Mancebo J, Abroug F, Conti G, et al. Treatment of acute hypoxemic non hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency with continuous positive airway pressure delivered by a face mask: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;284:2352-60.
  59. Keenan SP, Sinuff T, Cook DJ, Hill NS. Does Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improve outcome in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure? A systematic review. Crit Care Med 2004;32:2516-23.
  60. Rusterholtz T, Kempf J, Berton C, Gayol S, Tournoud C, Zaehringer M, et al. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIPSV) with facemask in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). Intensive Care Med 1999;25:21-8.
  61. Crane SD, Elliott MW, Gilligan P, Richards K, Gray AJ. Randomized controlled comparison of continuous positive airways pressure, bilevel noninvasive ventilation and standard treatment in emergency department patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Emerg Med J 2004;21:155-61.
  62. Park M, Sangean MC, Volpe MS, Feltrim MI, Nozawa E, Leite PF, et al. Randomized prospective trial of oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure and bilevel positive Airway pressure by face mask in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Crit Care Med 2004;2407-15.
  63. Hoffmann B, Welte T. The use of noninvasive pressure support ventilation for severe respiratory insufficiency due to pulmonary edema. Intensive Care Med 1999;25:15-20
  64. Nava S, Carbone G, DiBattista N, Bellone A, Baiardi P, Cosentini R, et al. Noninvasive ventilation in cardiogenic pulmonary edema: A multicenter, randomized trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:1432-7.
  65. Chadda K, Annane D, Hart N, Gajdos P, Raphael JC, Lofaso F. Cardiac and respiratory effects of continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiac pulmonary edema. Crit Care Med 2002;30:2457-61.
  66. Bellone A, Monari A, Cortellaro F, Vettorello M, Arlati S, Coen D. Myocardial infarction rate in acute pulmonary edema: Noninvasive pressure support ventilation vs. continuous positive airway pressure. Crit Care Med 2004;32:1860-5.
  67. Bellone A, Vettorello M, Monari A, Cortellaro F, Coen D. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation vs. continuous positive airway pressure in acute hypercapnic pulmonary edema. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:807-11.
  68. Mehta S, Nava S. Mask ventilation and cardiogenic pulmonary edema: “Another brick in the wall”. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:757-9.
  69. Aggarwal R, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Jindal SK. Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:637-43.
  70. Pennock BE, Kaplan PD, Carlin BW, Sabangan JS, Magovern JA. Pressure support ventilation with a simplified ventilatory support system administered with a nasal mask in patients with respiratory failure. Chest 1991;100:1371-6.
  71. Auriant I, Jallot A, Herve P, Cerrina J, Le Roy Ladurie F, Fournier JL, et al. Noninvasive ventilation reduces mortality in acute respiratory failure following lung resection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:1231-5.
  72. Auriant I, Jallot A, Herve P. Noninvasive ventilation reduces mortality in acute respiratory failure in AIDS patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 2002;29:519-25.
  73. Benhamou D, Girault C, Faure C, Portier F, Muir JF. Nasal mask ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Experience in elderly patients. Chest 1992;102:912-7.
  74. Abou-Shala N, Meduri U. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 1996;24:705-15.
  75. Antonelli M, Conti G, Moro ML, Esquinas A, Gonzalez-Diaz G, Confalonieri M, et al. Predictors of failure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure:a multi-centre study. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:1718-8.
  76. Jolliet DP, Abajo B, Pasquina P, Chevrolet JC. Non-invasive pressure support ventilation in severe community: Acquired pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:812-21.
  77. Rocker GM, MacKenzie MG, Williams B, Logan PM. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: Successful outcome in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS. Chest 1999;115:173-7.
  78. Chen H, Wang XP, Li F, Yang Q, Zhang LG, Du JX, et al. Evaluation of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in treatment for patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2003;15:585-8.
  79. Han F, Jiang YY, Zheng JH, Gao ZC, He QY. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation treatment for acute respiratory failure in SARS. Sleep Breath 2004;8:97-106.
  80. Beltrame F, Lucangelo U, Gregori D, Gregoretti C. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in trauma patients with acute respiratory failure. Modali Arch Chest Dis 1999;54:109-14.
  81. Bolliger CT, van Eeden SF. Treatment of multiple rib fractures. Randomized controlled trial comparing ventilatory with nonventilatory management. Chest 1990;97:943-8.
  82. Xirouchaki N, Kondoudaki F, Anastasaki M, Alexopoulou C, Koumiotaki S, Georgopoulos D. Noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation in patients with blunt thoracic trauma. Respiration 2005;72:517-22.
  83. Levy M, Tanios MA, Nelson D, Short K, Senechia A, Vespia J, et al. Outcomes of patients with do-not-intubate orders treated with noninvasive ventilation. Crit Care Med 2004;32:2002-7.
  84. Udwadia ZF, Santis GK, Steven MH, Simonds AK. Nasal ventilation to facilitate weaning in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. Thorax 1992;47:715-8.
  85. Nava S, Ambrosino N, Clini E, Prato M, Orlando G, Vitacca M, et al. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in the weaning of patients with respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Int Med 1998;128:721-8.
  86. Ferrer M, Esquinas A, Arancibia F, Bauer TT, Gonzalez G, Carrillo A, et al. Noninvasive ventilation during persistent weaning failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;168:70-6.
  87. Girault C, Daudehthtun I, Chevron V, Tamion F, Leroy J, Bonmarchand G. Noninvasive ventilation as a systematic extubation and weaning technique in acute-on-chronic respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:86-92.
  88. Jiang JS, Kao SL, Wang SN. Effect of early application of biphasic positive airway pressure on the outcome of extubation in ventilator weaning. Respirology 1999;4:161-5.
  89. Ferer M, Valencia M, Nicolas JM, Bernadich O, Badia JR, Torres A. Early Noninvasive ventilation averts extubation failure in patients at risk. A randomized trial. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2006;173:164-70.
  90. Hilbert G, Gruson D, Portel L, Gbikpi-Benissan G, Cardinaud JP. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation in COPD patients with postextubation hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency. Eur Respir 1998;11:1349-53.
  91. Keenan SP, Powers C, McCormack DG, Block G. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for post-extubation respiratory distress: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;287:3238-44.
  92. Esteban A, Frutos-vivar F, Ferguson ND, Arabi Y, Apezteguia C, Gonzalez M, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for respiratory failure after extubation. N Eng J Med 2004;350:2452-60.
  93. Mehta S, Hill NS. Noninvasive Ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:540-77.
  94. Brochard L, Mancebo J, Elliot MW. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Eur Respir J 2002;19:712-21.
  95. Confalonieri M, Garuti G, Cattaruzza MS, Osborn JF, Antonelli M, Conti G, et al. A chart of failure risk for noninvasive ventilation in patients with COPD exacerbation. Eur Respir J 2005;25:348-55.
  96. Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. Noninvasive ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Long term survival and predictors of in-hospital outcome. Thorax 2001;56:708-12.
  97. Cuvelier A, Muir JF. Technical practices are important to consider when assessing noninvasive ventilation failure. Eur Respir J 2005;25:1130-1.
  98. Soo Hoo GW, Santiago S, Williams AJ. Nasal mechanical ventilation for hypercapnic respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Determinants of success and failure. Crit Care Med 1994;22:1253-61.
  99. Wysocki M, Tric L, Wolff MA, Gertner J, Millet H, Herman B. Noninvasive pressure support ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure. Chest 1993;103:907-13.
  100. Ambrosino N, Foglio K, Rubini F, Clini E, Nava S, Vitacca M. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Correlates for success. Thorax 1995;50:755-7.
  101. Anton A, Guell R, Gomes J, Serrano J, Castellano A, Carrasco JL, et al. Predicting the result of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute exacerbations of patients with chronic airflow limitation. Chest 2000;117:828-33.
  102. Poponick JM, Rensto JP, Bennet RP, Emerman CL. Use of a ventilatory support system (BiPAP) for acute respiratory failure in the emergency department. Chest 1999;116:166-71.
  103. Adnet F, Racine SX, Lapostolle F, Cohen Y, Cupa M, Minadeo J. Full reversal of hypercapnic coma by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Am J Em Med 2001;19:3:244-6.
  104. Benhamou D, Girault C, Faure C, Portier F, Muir JF. Nasal mask ventilation in acute respiratory failure:experience in elderly patients. Chest 1992;102:912-7.
  105. Plant PK, Owen JL, Parrott S, Elliott MW. Cost effectiveness of ward based NIV for acute exacerbations of COPD: Economic analysis of randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:956.
  106. Carratu P, Bonfitto P, Dragonieri S, Schettini F, Clemente R, Di Gioia G, et al. Early and late failure of noninvasive ventilation in COPD with acute exacerbation. Eur J Clin Invest 2005;35:404-9.
  107. Confalonieri M, Garuti G, Cattaruza MS. A chart of failure risk for NIV in patients with COPD exacerbation. Eur Respir J 2005;25:1130-1.
  108. Meduri GU, Fox R, Abou-Shala N, Leeper KV, Wunderink RG. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation via facemask in patients with acute respiratory failure who refused tracheal intubation. Crit Care Med 1994;22:1584-90.
  109. Moretti M, Celione C, Tampieri A, Fracchia C, Marchioni A, Nava S. Incidence and causes of non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure after initial success. Thorax 2000;55:819-25.
  110. Brochard L, Maggiore S. Noninvasive ventilation: Modes of ventilation. Eur Respir Mon 2001;16:67-75.
  111. Lightowler JV, Elliott MW. Predicting the outcome from NIV for acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax 2000;55:815-6.
  112. Liesching T, Kwok H, Hill NS. Acute applications of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Chest 2003;124:699-713.
  113. Girault C, Richard JC, Chevron V, Tamion F, Pasquis P, Leroy J, et al. Comparative physiological effects of noninvasive assist-control and pressure support ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Chest 1997;111:1639-48.
  114. Vitacca M, Rubini F, Foglio K, Scalvini S, Nava S, Ambrosino N. Non-invasive modalities of positive pressure ventilation improved the outcome of acute exacerbations in COPD patients. Intensive Care Med 1993;19:450-5.
  115. Windisch W, Storre JH, Sorichter S, Virchow JC Jr. Comparison of volume and pressure limited ventilation at night: A prospective randomized crossover trial. Respir Med 2005;99:52-91.
  116. Laserna E, Barrot E, Beizteugi A, Quintana E, Hernandez A, Castillo J. Non-invasive ventilation in kyphoscoliosis. A comparison of a volumetric ventilator and a BiPAP support pressure device. Arch Bronchopneumol 2003;39:13-8.
  117. Restrick LJ, Fox NC, Braid G, Ward EM, Paul EA, Wedzicha JA. Comparison of nasal PSV with NIPPV in patients with nocturnal hypoventilation. Eur Respir J 1993;6:364-70.
  118. Smith IE, Shneerson JM. A laboratory comparison of four positive pressure ventilators used in the home. Eur Respir J 1996;9:2410-5.
  119. Simonds AK. Starting NIPPV: Practical aspects In: Simonds AK ed. Non-invasive respiratory support. Chapman and Hall: London; 1996. p. 58-75.
  120. Servillo G, Ughi L, Rossano F, et al. Noninvasive mask pressure support ventilation in COPD patients. Intensive Care Med 1994;50:S54.
  121. Ferguson GT, Gilmartin M. CO2 rebreathing during BiPAP ventilatory assistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:1126-35.
  122. Elliott MW, Simonds AK. Nocturnal assisted ventilation using bilevel positive airway pressure: The effect of EPAP. Eur Respir J 1995;8:436-40.
  123. Appendini L, Patessio A, Zanaboni S. Physiologic effects of PEEP and mask pressure support during exacerbations of COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;163:1069-76.
  124. Konyukov YA, Kuwayama N, Fukuoka T, Takahashi T, Mayumi T, Hotta T, et al. Effects of different triggering systems and external PEEP on trigger capability of the ventilator. Intensive Care Med 1996;22:363-8.
  125. Nava S, Ambrosino N, Bruschi C, Confalonieri M, Rampulla C. Physiological effect of flow and pressure triggering during NIMV in patients with COPD. Thorax 1997;52:249-54.
  126. Alsanian P, El Atrous S, Isabey D. Effects of flow triggering on breathing effort during partial ventilatory support. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:135-43.
  127. Calderini E, Confalonieri M, Puccio PG, Francavilla N, Stella L, Gregoretti C. Patient ventilator asynchrony during NIV: The role of expiratory trigger. Intensive Care Med 1999;25:662-7.
  128. Bonmarchand G, Chevron V, Chopin C, Jusserand D, Girault C, Moritz F, et al. Increased initial flow rate reduces inspiratory work of breathing during PSV in patients with exacerbation of COPD. Intensive Care Med 1996;22:1147-54.
  129. Richards GN, Cistulli PA, Ungar RG, Berthon-Jones M, Sullivan CE. Mouth leak with nasal CPAP increases nasal airways resistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:182-6.
  130. Elliot MW. The interface: Crucial for successful noninvasive ventilation. Euro Resp J 2004;23:7-8.
  131. Criner GJ, Travaline JM, Brennan KJ, Kreimer DT. Efficacy of a new full-face mask for NIPPV. Chest 1994;106:1109-15.
  132. Anton A, Tarrega J, Giner J, Guell R, Sanchis J. Acute physiologic effects of nasal and full face masks during NIPPV in patients with AECOPD. Respir Care 2003;48:922-5.
  133. Navalesi P, Fanfulla F, Frigerio P, Gregoretti C, Nava S. Physiologic evaluation of NIMV delivered with three types of masks in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 2000;28:1785-90.
  134. Mc Cornick J, Mehta S, Hipona R. Face mask versus nasal mask for administration of NIV in acute respiratory failure [abstract] Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155;A4-7.
  135. Tonnelier JM, Part G, Nowak E, Goetghebeur D, Renault A, Boles JM, et al. Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure using a new helmet interface: A case prospective pilot study. Intensive Care Med 2003;29:2077-80.
  136. Principi T, Pantanetti S, Catani F, Elisei D, Gabbanelli V, Pelaia P, et al. Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure delivered by helmet in hematological malignancy patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med 2004;30:147 - 50.
  137. Antonelli M, Pennisi MA, Pelosi P, Gregoretti C, Squadrone V, Rocco M, et al. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation using a helmet in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Anesthesiology 2004;100:16-24.
  138. Back JR, Alha AS, Bohatiak G. Mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the management of post - polio respiratory in sufficiency. Chest 1987;911:859-64.
  139. Hess DR. The evidence of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in the care of patients in acute respiratory failure: A systematic review of the literature. Respir Care 2004;49:810-29.
  140. Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, Warn D. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure-A meta-analysis update. Crit Care Med 2002;30:555-62.
  141. Hill NS. Complications of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Respir Care 1997;42:432-42.
  142. Leger P, Jennequin J, Gerard M, Robert D. Home positive pressure ventilation via nasal masks in patients with neuromuscular weakness and restrictive lung or chest wall disease. Respir Care 1989;34:73-9.
  143. Kwok H, McCormack J, Cece R, Houtchens J, Hill NS. Controlled trial of oronasal versus nasal mask ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med 2003;31:468-73.
  144. Willson GN, Piper AJ, Norman M, Chaseling WG, Milross MA, Collins ER, et al. Nasal vs full mask for noninvasive ventilation in chronic respiratory failure. Eur Respir J 2004;23:605-9.
  145. Ferguston GT, Gilmartin M. CO2 Rebreathing during BiPAP ventilatory assistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:1126-35.
  146. Angus RM, Ahmed MM, Fenwick LJ, Peacock AJ. Comparison of the acute effects on gas exchange of nasal ventilation and doxapram in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1996;51:1048-50.
  147. Pennock BE, Crawshaw L, Kaplan PD. Non invasive nasal mask ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Institution of a new therapeutic Technology for routine use. Chest 1994;105:441-4.
  148. Richard JC, Carlucci A, Wysocki M. French multicenter survey: Noninvasive vs mechanical Ventilation. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1999;159:A367.
  149. Mitrouska J, Xirouchaki N, Patakas D, Siafakas N, Georgopoulos D. Effects of chemical feedback on respiratory motor and ventilatory output during different modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. Eur Respir J 1999;13:873-82.
  150. Elliot MW. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Br Med Bull 2005;72:83-97.
  151. Wood KA, Lews L, Von Harz B, Kollef MH. The use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the emergency department: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Chest 1998;113:1339-46.
  152. Meduri GU, Fox RE, Abou-Shala N, Wunderink R, Tolley E. Non invasive positive pressure ventilation via facemask. First line intervention in patients with acute hypercapnic hypoxemic respiratory failure. Chest 1996;109:179-93.
  153. Kacmarek RM. NIPPV: Patient-ventilator synchrony, the difference between success and failure? Intensive Care Med 1999;25:645-7.
  154. Antonelli M, Esquinas A, Conti G. Risk factors for failure of noninvasive ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: A multicenter study. Intensive Care Med 1999;25:S56.
  155. WHO. World Health Report 2002. http:/www.who.int/whr/2002.
  156. Lopez AD, Murray CJ. The global burden of disease, 1990-2020 [new]. Nat Med 1998;4:1241-3.
  157. Jindal SK, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D. A review of population studies from India to estimate national burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with smoking. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2001;43:139-47.
  158. Connors AF Jr, Dawson NV, Thomas C, Harrell FE Jr, Desbiens N, Fulkerson WJ, et al. Outcomes following acute exacerbations of COLD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:959-67.
  159. Seneff MG, Wagner DP, Wagner RP, Zimmerman JE, Knaus WA. Hospital and 1-year survival of patients admitted to ICUs with acute exacerbation of COPD. JAMA 1995;274:1852-7.
  160. Merchant M, Karnad DR, Kanbur AA. Incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in a medical intensive care unit and general medical ward patients in a public hospital in Bombay. Indian J Hosp Infect 1998;39:143-8.
  161. Mustafa I. Intensive care in developing countries in the Western Pacific. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;4:304-9.
  162. Doherty MJ, Greenstone MA. Survey of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD in the UK. Thorax 1998;53:863-6.
  163. Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. One-year period prevalence study of respiratory acidosis in acute exacerbations of COPD: Implications for the provision of non-invasive ventilation and oxygen administration. Thorax 2000;55:550-4.
  164. Azoulay E, Alberti C, Bornstsin C, Leleu G, Moreau D, Recher C, et al. Improved survival in cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilatory support: Impact of noninvasive mechanical ventilatory support. Crit Care Med 2001;29:519-25.
  165. Jaber S, Delay JM, Chanques G, Sebbane M, Jacquet E, Souche B, et al. Outcomes of Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Abdominal Surgery Treated With Non invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation. Chest 2005;128:2688-95.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.