Objectives: To report a case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), to discuss the differential diagnosis and to give a review of current evidences in diagnosis and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Design: A detailed description of a case of OHSS followed by a thorough review of case reports, randomized controlled trials and review articles to assess the current modalities of diagnosis and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Results: A 29-year-old female was admitted with dyspnoea and features suggestive of polyserositis. Patient was evaluated for causes of polyserositis. She gave history of ovulation induction and invitro fertilization one week prior to the onset of dyspnoea. With the positive history of invitro fertilization and negative markers for other causes of capillary leak syndrome the patient was diagnosed to have OHSS. She was treated and improved within a week. Conclusion: Diagnosis and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome requires high index of suspicion, prompt investigation and early initiation of effective therapy. With correct diagnosis and early treatment, most patients recover.
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