Ultraviolet Box: An Innovative In-house Use of Ultraviolet Irradiation for Conservation of Respirators in COVID-19 Pandemic
Aparna Parmar, BG Manjunath
Citation Information :
Parmar A, Manjunath B. Ultraviolet Box: An Innovative In-house Use of Ultraviolet Irradiation for Conservation of Respirators in COVID-19 Pandemic. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020; 24 (8):713-715.
Aim: To use ultraviolet (UV) radiations in an indigenous method for sterilization of respirators for reuse during COVID-19 outbreak. Background: COVID-19 outbreak has infected more than 200 countries. In India, till now, more than 100,000 cases have been reported. Healthcare workers are at high risk of developing infections being in the frontline of taking care of COVDI-19 cases. The demands of personal protective equipment (PPE) are increasing, but the same is not matched with supply due to various reasons. In such scenarios, reusing respirators and face shields is an alternative. UV radiations have quick action and are able to preserve the quality of respirators. We have developed a UV box for surface sterilization of respirators with an intention to reuse. Technique: A thermocol box was taken from the central drug store and was fitted with two UV tubes of 254 nm wavelength procured from local service center of water purifiers. The position of the two tubes was such that one was near the base while other was fixed at the top. An aluminum mesh frame was placed in the middle of the box to act as a platform. The roof of the box was converted into a lid. The effectiveness of assembly was tested using culture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, a biological indicator tube containing test strip with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus was also exposed to UV light for a predefined duration, which did not show any color change after incubation for 48 hours. Conclusion: Our prototype assembly with supported efficacy from microbiological tests is an option for use of UV light within available resources for disinfection and reuse of scarce supplies of personal protective equipment. Clinical significance: UV box can help in meeting the demand supply deficit for respirators, face shields, and goggles that are paramount for the protection of HCW.
Welfare MoHaF. COVID-19 INDIA India: Government of India; 2020. Available from: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/.
Wilson NM, Norton A, Young FP, Collins DW. Airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 to Healthcare workers: a narrative review. Anaesthesia 2020;75(8):1086–1095. DOI: 10.1111/anae.15093.
Prevention CfDCa. Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators USA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/respirators-strategy/index.html.
Prevention CfDCa. UV Radiation 2019. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/features/uv-radiation-safety/index.html.
Diffey BL. Sources and measurement of ultraviolet radiation. Methods 2002;28(1):4–13. DOI: 10.1016/S1046-2023(02)00204-9.
Cutler TD, Zimmerman JJ. Ultraviolet irradiation and the mechanisms underlying its inactivation of infectious agents. Anim Health Res Rev 2011;12(1):15–23. DOI: 10.1017/S1466252311000016.
Walker CM, Ko G. Effect of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on viral aerosols. Environ Sci Technology 2007;41(15):5460–5465. DOI: 10.1021/es070056u.
Welch D, Buonanno M, Grilj V, Shuryak I, Crickmore C, Bigelow AW, et al. Far-UVC light: a new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):2752. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21058-w.
Moore G, Ali S, Cloutman-Green EA, Bradley CR, Wilkinson MA, Hartley JC, et al. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the nanoclave cabinet. BMC Inf Dis 2012;12:174. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-174.
Cadnum JL, Li DF, Redmond SN, John AR, Pearlmutter B, Donskey CJ. Effectiveness of ultraviolet-C light and a high-level disinfection cabinet for decontamination of N95 respirators. Pathog Immun 2020;5(1):52–67. DOI: 10.20411/pai.v5i1.372.
Viscusi DJ, Bergman MS, Eimer BC, Shaffer RE. Evaluation of five decontamination methods for filtering facepiece respirators. Ann Occup Hyg 2009;53(8):815–827.
Lore MB, Heimbuch BK, Brown TL, Wander JD, Hinrichs SH. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering facepiece respirators. Ann Occup Hyg 2012;56(1):92–101.
Lindsley WG, Martin Jr SB, Thewlis RE, Sarkisian K, Nwoko JO, Mead KR, et al. Effects of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on N95 respirator filtration performance and structural integrity. J Occup Environ Hyg 2015;12(8):509–517. DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2015. 1018518.
Mills D, Harnish DA, Lawrence C, Sandoval-Powers M, Heimbuch BK. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation of influenza-contaminated N95 filtering facepiece respirators. Am J Infect Control 2018;46(7):e49–e55. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.02.018.