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VOLUME 25 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2021 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Impact of the Lockdown due to COVID-19 Pandemic on the Spectrum and Outcome of Trauma in India

Darpanarayan Hazra, Anmol Jindal, Joanna P Fernandes

Keywords : COVID-19, Emergency department, Lockdown, Pandemic, Road traffic accidents, Trauma

Citation Information : Hazra D, Jindal A, Fernandes JP. Impact of the Lockdown due to COVID-19 Pandemic on the Spectrum and Outcome of Trauma in India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25 (3):273-278.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23758

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 20-03-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background: As a pre-emptive measure against the rampaging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), the Government of India ordered an unprecedented but imperative step of a nationwide lockdown on 22nd March, 2020. The entire month of April 2020 remained in a complete national lockdown. Methodology: We conducted this retrospective study to compare the spectrum and outcome of trauma victims who presented to our emergency department (ED) from April 2020 (lockdown period) to a similar season matched control arm of April 2018 (non-lockdown period). Results: Our study groups included 403 trauma victims (trauma prevalence: 9.7%) from April 2020 as compared to 667 trauma victims (trauma prevalence: 10.8%) from April 2018 with an absolute decrease of −39.6% during the lockdown month. The intense lockdown resulted in an absolute decrease in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) (−75.1%), sports-related injuries (−81.8%), bull gore injuries (−64.3%), workplace-related injuries (−50.0%), and fall from height (−3.5%). However, an absolute increase in the number of falls on level ground (FLG) (+95.7%), domestic trauma (+91.4%), and burn (+37.5%) patients were noted during the lockdown period. The proportion of trauma victims under the influence of alcohol, as determined by a positive blood alcohol content, was significantly lower in the lockdown period [adjusted OR: 0.34 (95% CI: 0.17–0.67); p-value: 0.002] as were RTAs [adjusted OR: 0.44 (95% CI: 0.31–0.62); p-value: <0.001], FLG [adjusted OR: 1.87 (95% CI: 1.14–3.06); p-value: 0.0], and head injuries [adjusted OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.13–0.3); p-value: <0.001]. Conclusion: During the stringent lockdown period of April 2020, there was a significant absolute decrease in the number of trauma victims, especially RTAs. The intense lockdown resulted in a significant decrease in the proportion of trauma victims under the influence of alcohol, head injuries, fractures, and dislocations.


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